Getting the systematic review basics right helps clinical practice: 4 common pitfalls for systematic review authors to avoid

As BJSM readers know, systematic reviews identify, critique and summarise evidence relevant to a specific question. Most importantly, systematic reviews should be transparent and follow a predefined protocol to reduce bias. Since many articles in the scientific literature mislabel systematic reviews,1 journals including BJSM are improving systematic review reporting by adhering to standards such as the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) reporting guidelines.2 This editorial provides practical tips for systematic review authors relevant to sports and exercise medicine: guidance on four common problems and suggestions on how to address these problems.

Key steps for quality systematic reviews

There are six keys steps that you should follow for a systematic review:

State a clear question (specifying the Population studied, Intervention(s)or exposure(s), Comparisons (if any) and Outcomes—the PICO).

Conduct a systematic, replicable search for evidence using a prespecified search strategy.

Select studies for the review based on predefined…

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via IFTTT Medicine by Alexandros G.Sfakianakis,Anapafseos 5 Agios Nikolaos,Crete 72100,Greece,tel :00302841026182 & 00306932607174

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Rigorous qualitative research in sports, exercise and musculoskeletal medicine journals is important and relevant

Qualitative research enables inquiry into processes and beliefs through exploration of narratives, personal experiences and language.1 Its findings can inform and improve healthcare decisions by providing information about peoples’ perceptions, beliefs, experiences and behaviour, and augment quantitative analyses of effectiveness data. The results of qualitative research can inform stakeholders about facilitators and obstacles to exercise, motivation and adherence, the influence of experiences, beliefs, disability and capability on physical activity, exercise engagement and performance, and to test strategies that maximise physical performance.

High-quality qualitative research can also enrich interpretation of quantitative analyses and be pooled in metasyntheses for evaluation of strength of evidence; contribute to the development and implementation of clinical decision support aids, outcome measures and clinical practice guidelines2 such as the UK National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guidelines (www.nice.org.uk) and Ottawa Panel guidelines for knee osteoarthritis3; and inform health and social care.

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Imaging-detected acute muscle injuries in athletes participating in the Rio de Janeiro 2016 Summer Olympic Games

Background

Acute muscle injuries in elite athletes are responsible for a large portion of time loss injuries.

Aim

To describe the frequency, the anatomic distribution, and severity of imaging-detected acute muscle injuries among athletes who competed in the Rio de Janeiro 2016 Summer Olympics.

Methods

We recorded all sports injuries reported by the National Olympic Committee medical teams and the Organising Committee medical staff during the 2016 Summer Olympics. Imaging of acute muscle injuries was performed at the IOC’s polyclinic within the Olympic Village using ultrasound and 3.0 T and 1.5 T MRI scanners. The assessment of images was performed centrally by three musculoskeletal radiologists. The distribution of injuries by anatomic location and sports discipline and the severity of injuries were recorded.

Results

In total, 11 274 athletes from 207 teams were included. A total of 1101 injuries were reported. Central review of radiological images revealed 81 acute muscle injuries in 77 athletes (66% male, mean age: 25.4 years, range 18–38 years). Athletics (track and field) athletes were the most commonly affected (n=39, 48%), followed by football players (n=9, 11%). The majority of injuries affected muscles from lower limbs (n=68, 84%), with the hamstring being the most commonly involved. Most injuries were grade 2 injuries according to the Peetrons classification (n=44, 54%), and we found 18 injuries exhibiting intramuscular tendon involvement on MRI.

Conclusion

Imaging-detected acute muscle injuries during the 2016 Summer Olympics affected mainly thigh muscles in athletics disciplines.

from #Medicine-SfakianakisAlexandros via o.lakala70 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2AmjRVi
via IFTTT Medicine by Alexandros G.Sfakianakis,Anapafseos 5 Agios Nikolaos,Crete 72100,Greece,tel :00302841026182 & 00306932607174

Getting the systematic review basics right helps clinical practice: 4 common pitfalls for systematic review authors to avoid

As BJSM readers know, systematic reviews identify, critique and summarise evidence relevant to a specific question. Most importantly, systematic reviews should be transparent and follow a predefined protocol to reduce bias. Since many articles in the scientific literature mislabel systematic reviews,1 journals including BJSM are improving systematic review reporting by adhering to standards such as the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) reporting guidelines.2 This editorial provides practical tips for systematic review authors relevant to sports and exercise medicine: guidance on four common problems and suggestions on how to address these problems.

Key steps for quality systematic reviews

There are six keys steps that you should follow for a systematic review:

State a clear question (specifying the Population studied, Intervention(s)or exposure(s), Comparisons (if any) and Outcomes—the PICO).

Conduct a systematic, replicable search for evidence using a prespecified search strategy.

Select studies for the review based on predefined…

from #Medicine-SfakianakisAlexandros via o.lakala70 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2Anfx7W
via IFTTT

Rigorous qualitative research in sports, exercise and musculoskeletal medicine journals is important and relevant

Qualitative research enables inquiry into processes and beliefs through exploration of narratives, personal experiences and language.1 Its findings can inform and improve healthcare decisions by providing information about peoples’ perceptions, beliefs, experiences and behaviour, and augment quantitative analyses of effectiveness data. The results of qualitative research can inform stakeholders about facilitators and obstacles to exercise, motivation and adherence, the influence of experiences, beliefs, disability and capability on physical activity, exercise engagement and performance, and to test strategies that maximise physical performance.

High-quality qualitative research can also enrich interpretation of quantitative analyses and be pooled in metasyntheses for evaluation of strength of evidence; contribute to the development and implementation of clinical decision support aids, outcome measures and clinical practice guidelines2 such as the UK National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guidelines (www.nice.org.uk) and Ottawa Panel guidelines for knee osteoarthritis3; and inform health and social care.

from #Medicine-SfakianakisAlexandros via o.lakala70 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2Be2ohH
via IFTTT

Imaging-detected acute muscle injuries in athletes participating in the Rio de Janeiro 2016 Summer Olympic Games

Background

Acute muscle injuries in elite athletes are responsible for a large portion of time loss injuries.

Aim

To describe the frequency, the anatomic distribution, and severity of imaging-detected acute muscle injuries among athletes who competed in the Rio de Janeiro 2016 Summer Olympics.

Methods

We recorded all sports injuries reported by the National Olympic Committee medical teams and the Organising Committee medical staff during the 2016 Summer Olympics. Imaging of acute muscle injuries was performed at the IOC’s polyclinic within the Olympic Village using ultrasound and 3.0 T and 1.5 T MRI scanners. The assessment of images was performed centrally by three musculoskeletal radiologists. The distribution of injuries by anatomic location and sports discipline and the severity of injuries were recorded.

Results

In total, 11 274 athletes from 207 teams were included. A total of 1101 injuries were reported. Central review of radiological images revealed 81 acute muscle injuries in 77 athletes (66% male, mean age: 25.4 years, range 18–38 years). Athletics (track and field) athletes were the most commonly affected (n=39, 48%), followed by football players (n=9, 11%). The majority of injuries affected muscles from lower limbs (n=68, 84%), with the hamstring being the most commonly involved. Most injuries were grade 2 injuries according to the Peetrons classification (n=44, 54%), and we found 18 injuries exhibiting intramuscular tendon involvement on MRI.

Conclusion

Imaging-detected acute muscle injuries during the 2016 Summer Olympics affected mainly thigh muscles in athletics disciplines.

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Toxins, Vol. 9, Pages 397: Cone Snails: A Big Store of Conotoxins for Novel Drug Discovery

Toxins, Vol. 9, Pages 397: Cone Snails: A Big Store of Conotoxins for Novel Drug Discovery

Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins9120397

Authors: Bingmiao Gao Chao Peng Jiaan Yang Yunhai Yi Junqing Zhang Qiong Shi

Marine drugs have developed rapidly in recent decades. Cone snails, a group of more than 700 species, have always been one of the focuses for new drug discovery. These venomous snails capture prey using a diverse array of unique bioactive neurotoxins, usually named as conotoxins or conopeptides. These conotoxins have proven to be valuable pharmacological probes and potential drugs due to their high specificity and affinity to ion channels, receptors, and transporters in the nervous systems of target prey and humans. Several research groups, including ours, have examined the venom gland of cone snails using a combination of transcriptomic and proteomic sequencing, and revealed the existence of hundreds of conotoxin transcripts and thousands of conopeptides in each Conus species. Over 2000 nucleotide and 8000 peptide sequences of conotoxins have been published, and the number is still increasing quickly. However, more than 98% of these sequences still lack 3D structural and functional information. With the rapid development of genomics and bioinformatics in recent years, functional predictions and investigations on conotoxins are making great progress in promoting the discovery of novel drugs. For example, ω-MVIIA was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in 2004 to treat chronic pain, and nine more conotoxins are at various stages of preclinical or clinical evaluation. In short, the genus Conus, the big family of cone snails, has become an important genetic resource for conotoxin identification and drug development.

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Inhibiting CDK in Cancer Therapy: Current Evidence and Future Directions

AbstractCell cycle dysregulation is a hallmark of all cancers, resulting in uncontrolled proliferation. Cyclin dependent kinases (CDKs), a family of proteins that are involved in the regulation of the cell cycle, are frequently overexpressed or mutated in cancer. Hence, CDK-inhibiting drugs have been developed and evaluated as cancer therapeutics. Clinical trials have shown CDK4/6 inhibitors (CDK4/6i) to be relatively safe and effective, and these are now standard of care treatment for advanced hormone receptor positive breast cancer. Some CDK4/6i drugs are also able to cross the blood brain barrier and may, therefore, offer effective therapy for primary and metastatic central nervous system malignancies. Ongoing research is also evaluating CDK4/6i for additional breast cancer subtypes and…

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Phase IB Trial of the Anti-Cancer Stem Cell DLL4-Binding Agent Demcizumab with Pemetrexed and Carboplatin as First-Line Treatment of Metastatic Non-Squamous NSCLC

ConclusionsThis study has identified a truncated dosing regimen and recommended phase II dose of demcizumab (5 mg/kg q3-weekly ×4) for subsequent clinical evaluation in combination with standard carboplatin and pemetrexed chemotherapy. NCT01189968. (Source: Targeted Oncology)

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Toxins, Vol. 9, Pages 397: Cone Snails: A Big Store of Conotoxins for Novel Drug Discovery

Toxins, Vol. 9, Pages 397: Cone Snails: A Big Store of Conotoxins for Novel Drug Discovery

Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins9120397

Authors: Bingmiao Gao Chao Peng Jiaan Yang Yunhai Yi Junqing Zhang Qiong Shi

Marine drugs have developed rapidly in recent decades. Cone snails, a group of more than 700 species, have always been one of the focuses for new drug discovery. These venomous snails capture prey using a diverse array of unique bioactive neurotoxins, usually named as conotoxins or conopeptides. These conotoxins have proven to be valuable pharmacological probes and potential drugs due to their high specificity and affinity to ion channels, receptors, and transporters in the nervous systems of target prey and humans. Several research groups, including ours, have examined the venom gland of cone snails using a combination of transcriptomic and proteomic sequencing, and revealed the existence of hundreds of conotoxin transcripts and thousands of conopeptides in each Conus species. Over 2000 nucleotide and 8000 peptide sequences of conotoxins have been published, and the number is still increasing quickly. However, more than 98% of these sequences still lack 3D structural and functional information. With the rapid development of genomics and bioinformatics in recent years, functional predictions and investigations on conotoxins are making great progress in promoting the discovery of novel drugs. For example, ω-MVIIA was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in 2004 to treat chronic pain, and nine more conotoxins are at various stages of preclinical or clinical evaluation. In short, the genus Conus, the big family of cone snails, has become an important genetic resource for conotoxin identification and drug development.

from #Medicine-SfakianakisAlexandros via o.lakala70 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2BK3X3j
via IFTTT Medicine by Alexandros G.Sfakianakis,Anapafseos 5 Agios Nikolaos,Crete 72100,Greece,tel :00302841026182 & 00306932607174