Cells, Vol. 5, Pages 1: MIRO GTPases in Mitochondrial Transport, Homeostasis and Pathology

The evolutionarily-conserved mitochondrial Rho (MIRO) small GTPase is a Ras superfamily member with three unique features. It has two GTPase domains instead of the one found in other small GTPases, and it also has two EF hand calcium binding domains, which allow Ca2+-dependent modulation of its activity and functions. Importantly, it is specifically associated with the mitochondria and via a hydrophobic transmembrane domain, rather than a lipid-based anchor more commonly found in other small GTPases. At the mitochondria, MIRO regulates mitochondrial homeostasis and turnover. In metazoans, MIRO regulates mitochondrial transport and organization at cellular extensions, such as axons, and, in some cases, intercellular transport of the organelle through tunneling nanotubes. Recent findings have revealed a myriad of molecules that are associated with MIRO, particularly the kinesin adaptor Milton/TRAK, mitofusin, PINK1 and Parkin, as well as the endoplasmic reticulum-mitochondria encounter structure (ERMES) complex. The mechanistic aspects of the roles of MIRO and its interactors in mitochondrial homeostasis and transport are gradually being revealed. On the other hand, MIRO is also increasingly associated with neurodegenerative diseases that have roots in mitochondrial dysfunction. In this review, I discuss what is currently known about the cellular physiology and pathophysiology of MIRO functions.

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Occurrence of Breast Mucinous Carcinoma After Autologous Fat Grating for Breast Augmentation

Abstract

Autologous fat grafting is commonly performed in reconstructive breast surgery as well as in aesthetic breast augmentation surgery. Nevertheless, little is known about the interaction between fat grafts and cancer. A 36-year-old patient had undergone bilateral breast augmentation with autologous fat grafting. Two months after surgery, she perceived two small palpable indurations in the right breast. Nine months after the procedure, the lumps grew bigger and lumpectomy was performed. Histologic examination of the specimens showed mucinous carcinoma of the breast. This case raises once again the question about the possible links between breast cancer and fat grafts. The level of evidence is level V.

No Level assigned

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A Modified Method Combining Z-Epicanthoplasty and Blepharoplasty to Develop Out-Fold Type Double Eyelids

Abstract

Background

The epicanthus can weaken the effect of blepharoplasty, which makes it difficult to form the out-fold type double eyelids preferred by Asian women. The integration of blepharoplasty and Z-epicanthoplasty has become increasingly popular. Although many techniques have been introduced to remove the epicanthus during blepharoplasty, there are still some surgical complications.

Method

This study aimed to evaluate the practicability and effectiveness of combining Z-epicanthoplasty and blepharoplasty. Removing a slice of skin from the upper eyelid to the inner canthus makes the epicanthus crease along the vertical axis of Z-plasty. The up-outward triangular flap points to the lower eyelid margin instead of the inner canthus. By cutting off the fibrous tissue and orbicularis oculi muscle, the tension that causes epicanthus is completely released; therefore, the inner canthus ligament anchor is unnecessary and avoids damage to the inner canthus.

Result

From January 2008 to June 2014, this modified surgical method was carried out on 1108 patients. One hundred and twelve patients were evaluated at a follow-up visit ranging from 6 to 72 months. In 2 cases, the double-eyelid fold developed into an in-fold type, while, in 110 cases, it developed into an out-fold type. The outlines of the upper eyelids were natural and symmetric, and the inner canthus and lacrimal caruncle were fully exposed with no visible scar.

Conclusion

This modified method is simple in design and practice. The inner canthus and lacrimal caruncle can be fully exposed, giving a natural, smooth, Westernized, appealing look. This technique is suitable for all types of epicanthus in Asian women.

Level of Evidence IV

This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors http://ift.tt/18t7xNj.

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Quality of Life and Alleviation of Symptoms After Breast Reduction for Macromastia in Obese Patients: Is Surgery Worth It?

Abstract

Background

Breast hypertrophy can cause a variety of symptoms and affect lifestyle and quality of life. Breast reduction, being the most effective treatment, is sometimes difficult to establish as standard treatment in obese patients (difficulties to differentiate symptoms from macromastia or from obesity, higher rate of complications).

Aim

To evaluate the effect of reduction mammaplasty (quality of life and symptoms) in obese patients comparing with non-obese.

Methods

This is a prospective study of patients undergoing reduction mammaplasty. Patients were allocated in non-obese (BMI < 29) and obese (BMI > 30). Demographic data, comorbidities, specific symptoms questionnaire, data from the surgical procedure, Spanish version of the Health-Related Quality of Life (SF-36) questionnaire, complications and sequels were recorded and collected before the operation and at 1 month and 1 year after. Chi-square, Fisher’s exact t test, McNemar, Mann–Whitney U and Kruskal–Wallis tests were used for statistical analysis.

Results

One hundred twenty-one consecutive patients were operated on; 54 (44.6 %) obese and 67 (55.4 %) non-obese. The average age of patients was 40.7 (18–78), average volume of resected tissue was 1.784 g (401–5.790), and average hospital stay was 2.94 days (1–11). There were no differences between obese and normal BMI patients with regard to length of hospital stay, complications, sequels, or reoperations. Symptoms improved in both groups. Physical and mental components of the SF-36 improved at 1 year in both groups (p < 0.001). The mental health component improved at 1 month (p < 0.001) in both groups.

Conclusions

Obese patients should be considered for reduction mammaplasty surgery in the same way as women of normal weight.

Level of Evidence III

This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each submission to which Evidence-Based Medicine rankings are applicable. This excludes Review Articles, Book Reviews, and manuscripts that concern Basic Science, Animal Studies, Cadaver Studies, and Experimental Studies. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors http://ift.tt/18t7xNj.

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Preparation of high purity docosahexaenoic acid from microalgae oil in a packed bed reactor via two-step lipase-catalysed esterification

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Publication date: March 2016
Source:Journal of Functional Foods, Volume 21
Author(s): Eun-Ju Lee, Moon Won Lee, Da Som No, Hee-Jin Kim, Se-Wook Oh, Yangha Kim, In-Hwan Kim
Highly pure docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) was produced successfully in a packed bed reactor via the two-step lipase-catalysed esterification using the fatty acid from microalgae (from Crypthecodinium cohnii) and ethanol as substrates. Lipozyme RM IM from Rhizomucor miehei was employed as a biocatalyst. In the first step, a temperature of 40 °C, a molar ratio of 1:4 (fatty acid to ethanol), and a water content of 0.6 wt% (based on the total substrate weight) were selected as optimum conditions. A maximum DHA concentration of ca. 90 wt% was achieved in the fatty acid fraction with an 89 wt% yield after 15 min. In the second step, the fatty acids from the first step were used as the substrate and a recursive reaction was conducted using identical optimized conditions. Following this second step, a DHA concentration of 100 wt% was achieved in conjunction with an 83.2 wt% yield after 25 min.

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Effect of resistant starch (Hi-maize) on the survival of Lactobacillus acidophilus microencapsulated with sodium alginate

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Publication date: March 2016
Source:Journal of Functional Foods, Volume 21
Author(s): Mariana de Araújo Etchepare, Greice Carine Raddatz, Alexandre José Cichoski, Érico Marlon Moraes Flores, Juliano Smanioto Barin, Leila Queiroz Zepka, Eduardo Jacob-Lopes, Carlos Raimundo Ferreira Grosso, Cristiano Ragagnin de Menezes
Resistant starch (Hi-maize) at a concentration of 1% was used for the microencapsulation of Lactobacillus acidophilus in alginate beads. Moist and freeze-dried microparticles were obtained. The addition of prebiotics did not increase the size of the moist particles. By contrast, the freeze-dried microparticles of alginate and alginate + Hi-maize had diameters of 114.51 and 78.49 µm, respectively. The Hi-maize provided better protection for the probiotics after exposure to simulated gastrointestinal juice for both the moist and the freeze-dried microparticles. Regarding the viability of the probiotic culture during storage, both treatments proved to be viable, with suitable values conferring probiotic effects (<6 log CFU g−1), with at least 30 days of stability in the freeze-dried form and 135 days in the moist form, both under storage at room temperature (25 °C).

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Cyanidin-3-O-β-glucoside and protocatechuic acid activate AMPK/mTOR/S6K pathway and improve glucose homeostasis in mice

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Publication date: March 2016
Source:Journal of Functional Foods, Volume 21
Author(s): Veena Talagavadi, Paolo Rapisarda, Fabio Galvano, Piergiuseppe Pelicci, Marco Giorgio
AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation is an established treatment for diabetes. Here the effects of anthocyanin extract from blood orange juice, i.e. cyanidin-3-O-β-glucoside (C3G) and its secondary metabolite protocatechuic acid (PCA), on AMPK signalling in murine hepatic cell line and in the liver of C57BL/6 mice were investigated. Results showed for the first time that C3G and PCA activate AMPK and suppress its downstream kinase mTOR/S6K both in vitro and in vivo systems. Then, C3G and particularly PCA increased expression of glut 1 and glut 4 in the liver and improved glucose tolerance in normal and obese mice. Finally, the consumption of blood orange juice was observed to increase insulin sensitivity in mice. These findings indicate that C3G and PCA are natural AMPK activators and dietary consumption of food sources of C3G and PCA improves glucose homeostasis. Mainly, blood orange juice has beneficial effect for type 2 diabetes.

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