Long-term physical workload in middle age and disability pension in men and women: a follow-up study of Swedish cohorts

Abstract

Purpose

The study investigates the association between level of long-term physical workload in middle age and disability pension (DP) before 61 years of age with adjustments made for early life factors, level of education, and psychosocial working conditions. Associations with DP overall, DP due to musculoskeletal disorders and DP due to psychiatric disorders were examined.

Methods

The study is based on cohorts of 21,809 Swedish men and women born in 1948 and 1953, with data on physical workload estimated with a job exposure matrix based on occupational titles in 1985 and 1990 and follow-up data on diagnosis-specific DP in the years 1991–2009. Data on paternal education and intelligence were collected in primary school. Data on level of education were taken from administrative records. Data on psychosocial working conditions were estimated with a job exposure matrix based on occupational titles in 1990.

Results

Long-term exposure to high physical workload measured 5 years apart at around age 40 was strongly associated with DP due to musculoskeletal disorders up to the age of 61 among both men (HR 5.44, 95 % CI 3.35–8.84) and women (HR 3.82, CI 95 % 2.88–5.08). For women, the association between high physical load and overall DP was also significantly increased (HR 2.33, CI 95 % 1.92–2.82). The increased risks remained but were clearly attenuated after adjustments for fathers’ education, IQ in childhood, achieved education and level of control at work.

Conclusions

Exposure to high physical workload is associated with long-term risk of DP due to musculoskeletal disorders, even though adjustments for early life factors, level of education and psychosocial working conditions clearly attenuated the risks.

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The price of target dose uniformity

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Publication date: Available online 30 July 2016
Source:International Journal of Radiation Oncology*Biology*Physics
Author(s): David Craft, Fazal Khan, Michael Young, Thomas Bortfeld

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Upregulation of long noncoding RNA SNHG18 promotes radioresistance of glioma by repressing Sema5A

Publication date: Available online 30 July 2016
Source:International Journal of Radiation Oncology*Biology*Physics
Author(s): R. Zheng, Q.W. Yao, C. Ren, Y. Liu, H.L. Yang, G.Z. Xie, S.S. Du, K.J. Yang, Y.W. Yuan
Although there is increasing evidence that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) play an important regulatory role in carcinogenesis and tumor progression, little is known about the role of small nucleolar RNA host gene 18 (SNHG18) in cancer. This study investigated the clinical associations of SNHG18 and its role in glioma. Our results showed that the expression level of SNHG18 was remarkably up-regulated in clinical glioma tissues compared with normal brain tissues.SNHG18 expression was associated with the clinical tumor grade and was negatively correlated with IDH1 mutation. In addition, knockdown of SNHG18 with short hairpin RNA suppressed the radioresistance of glioma cells, whereas transgenic expression of SNHG18 had the opposite effect. Furthermore, xenograft tumors grown from cells with SNHG18 deletion were more radiosensitive than tumors grown from control cells. Further studies revealed that SNHG18 promotes radioresistance by inhibiting Sema5A, and that inhibition of Sema5A expression abrogated the radiosensitizing effect caused by SNHG18 deletion. Our findings provide new insights into the role of SNHG18 in glioma, and suggest its potential as a target for glioma therapy.

Teaser

SNHG18 is significantly up-regulated in clinical glioma tissues and is negatively associated with Sema5A expression. Inhibition of SNHG18 is able to suppress glioma cell radioresistance. The promotion effect of SNHG18 deletion in radiosensitivity was rescued by suppression of Sema5A.

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Palliative Care in Undergraduate Medical Education-How Far Have We Come?

CONCLUSION: There is significant progress in palliative care education within medical schools. Ongoing challenges relate to correlating our current practice in medical education to professional recommendations and the expressed needs of junior doctors to practice competent end-of-life care. PMID: 27468933 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher] (Source: The American Journal of Hospice and Palliative Care)

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Serum lipidomics analysis of ovariectomized rats under Curcuma comosa treatment

Publication date: 4 November 2016
Source:Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Volume 192
Author(s): Nawaporn Vinayavekhin, Jetjamnong Sueajai, Nichaboon Chaihad, Ratchanee Panrak, Ratchanaporn Chokchaisiri, Polkit Sangvanich, Apichart Suksamrarn, Pawinee Piyachaturawat
Ethnopharmacological relevanceCurcuma comosa Roxb. (C. comosa) or Wan Chak Motluk, Zingiberaceae family, has been used in Thai traditional medicine for the treatment of gynecological problems and inflammation.Aim of the studyThis study aimed to investigate the therapeutic potential of C. comosa by determining the changes in the lipid profiles in the ovariectomized rats, as a model of estrogen-deficiency-induced hyperlipidemia, after treatment with different components of C. comosa using an untargeted lipidomics approach.Materials and methodsLipids were extracted from the serum of adult female rats subjected to a sham operation (SHAM; control), ovariectomy (OVX), or OVX with 12-week daily doses of estrogen (17β-estradiol; E2), (3R)-1,7-diphenyl-(4E,6E)-4,6-heptadien-3-ol (DPHD; a phytoestrogen from C. comosa), powdered C. comosa rhizomes or its crude ethanol extract. They were then analyzed by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry, characterized, and subjected to the orthogonal projections to latent structures discriminant analysis statistical model to identify tentative biomarkers.ResultsLevels of five classes of lipids (ceramide, ceramide-1-phosphate, sphingomyelin, 1-O-alkenyl-lysophosphatidylethanolamine and lysophosphatidylethanolamine) were elevated in the OVX rats compared to those in the SHAM rats, while the monoacylglycerols and triacylglycerols were decreased. The E2 treatment only reversed the levels of ceramides, whereas treatments with DPHD, C. comosa extract or powder returned the levels of all upregulated lipids back to those in the SHAM control rats.ConclusionsThe findings suggest the potential beneficial effects of C. comosa on preventing the increased ceramide levels in OVX rats, a possible cause of metabolic disturbance under estrogen deficiency. Overall, the results demonstrated the power of untargeted lipidomics in discovering disease-relevant biomarkers, as well as evaluating the effectiveness of treatment by C. comosa components (DPHD, extract or powder) as utilized in Thai traditional medicine, and also providing scientific support for its folklore use.

Graphical abstract

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The role of occupational therapy in pain management

Publication date: Available online 30 July 2016
Source:Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine
Author(s): Wendy Hill
Occupation is central to human behaviour. Occupational therapy is based on the premise that there is an intrinsic relationship between occupations, health and wellbeing. Chronic pain restricts the performance of activities that individuals need to, want to and are expected to perform. As activity performance is central to an individual’s identity, these restrictions can further impact the person’s psychological health and wellbeing. Occupation is not performed in isolation and the inability to fulfil valued family and social roles has a further impact on the person’s social environment. The focus of occupational therapists working in pain management is therefore to enable individuals with chronic pain to participate in the activities that have value and meaning to them, despite their pain. The occupational therapy intervention will include the use of strategies such as activity management, activity adaptation, the development of coping strategies and vocational rehabilitation and may involve working with patients at home, school or workplace in addition to clinical settings. The aim of this article is to explain the role and value of occupational therapy within the pain management team.

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Purpose in the Anthropocene: Dynamical Role and Physical Basis

Publication date: Available online 30 July 2016
Source:Anthropocene
Author(s): P.K. Haff
The dynamics of the modern Earth-system is not explicable without reference to systems that have a purpose (Haff, 2012), i.e., that exhibit goal-seeking behavior. This paper develops the physical basis of agency or purposiveness in the technosphere—the human-technological system that defines the Anthropocene—as part of an analysis of the organizational requirements of energy-dissipating systems. The regulative, or framing, approach used here avoids reliance on reductive modeling and aims instead at establishing general properties of purposive systems. Establishment of purposiveness (the condition of having a purpose) as a physical system property, rather than a metaphysical concept or a purely biological phenomenon, enables a new look at the role of humans and human purpose in the Anthropocene. This approach can help avoid the misleading anthropocentric assumption that humans are independent authors of the Anthropocene they inhabit, rather than contingent actors whose purposes are not entirely their own.

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