Cancer Genomics Proteomics Table of Contents for January-February 2017; Vol. 14, No. 1

Cancer Genomics & Proteomics
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Cancer Genomics & Proteomics
January-February 2017; 14 (1)

Review: The Multiple Roles of Exosomes in Metastasis
ULRICH H. WEIDLE, FABIAN BIRZELE, GWEN KOLLMORGEN, and RÜDIGER RÜGER
Cancer Genomics Proteomics January-February 2017 14 (1) 1-15 OPEN ACCESS ARTICLE FREE
http://cgp.iiarjournals.org/content/14/1/1.abstract
HTP Nutraceutical Screening for Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors and Effects of HDACis on Tumor-suppressing miRNAs by Trichostatin A and Grapeseed (Vitis vinifera) in HeLa cells
ELIZABETH A. MAZZIO and KARAM F.A. SOLIMAN
Cancer Genomics Proteomics January-February 2017 14 (1) 17-33 OPEN ACCESS ARTICLE FREE
http://cgp.iiarjournals.org/content/14/1/17.abstract
Proteomics Analysis of Ovarian Cancer Cell Lines and Tissues Reveals Drug Resistance-associated Proteins
ISA N. CRUZ, HELEN M. COLEY, HOLGER B. KRAMER, THUMULURU KAVITAH MADHURI, NUR A.M. SAFUWAN, ANA RITA ANGELINO, and MIN YANG
Cancer Genomics Proteomics January-February 2017 14 (1) 35-51 OPEN ACCESS ARTICLE FREE
http://cgp.iiarjournals.org/content/14/1/35.abstract
Expression Profiling of a Human Thyroid Cell Line Stably Expressing the BRAFV600E Mutation
BYOUNG-AE KIM, HYEON-GUN JEE, JIN WOOK YI, SU-JIN KIM, YOUNG JUN CHAI, JUNE YOUNG CHOI, and KYU EUN LEE
Cancer Genomics Proteomics January-February 2017 14 (1) 53-67 OPEN ACCESS ARTICLE FREE
http://cgp.iiarjournals.org/content/14/1/53.abstract
Customized Array Comparative Genomic Hybridization Analysis of 25 Phosphatase-encoding Genes in Colorectal Cancer Tissues
IZABELA LACZMANSKA, PAWEL SKIBA, PAWEL KARPINSKI, MAREK BEBENEK, and MARIA M. SASIADEK
Cancer Genomics Proteomics January-February 2017 14 (1) 69-74 OPEN ACCESS ARTICLE FREE
http://cgp.iiarjournals.org/content/14/1/69.abstract
MicroRNAs 142-3p, miR-155 and miR-203 Are Deregulated in Gastric MALT Lymphomas Compared to Chronic Gastritis
CONCEPCIÓN FERNÁNDEZ, BEATRIZ BELLOSILLO, MARIANA FERRARO, AGUSTÍN SEOANE, BLANCA SÁNCHEZ-GONZÁLEZ, SILVIA PAIRET, AINA PONS, LUIS BARRANCO, MARÍA CARMEN VELA, EVA GIMENO, LLUÍS COLOMO, CARLES BESSES, ALFONS NAVARRO, and ANTONIO SALAR
Cancer Genomics Proteomics January-February 2017 14 (1) 75-82 OPEN ACCESS ARTICLE FREE
http://cgp.iiarjournals.org/content/14/1/75.abstract
Combination of a STAT3 Inhibitor and an mTOR Inhibitor Against a Temozolomide-resistant Glioblastoma Cell Line
HARUO MIYATA, TADASHI ASHIZAWA, AKIRA IIZUKA, RYOTA KONDOU, CHIZU NONOMURA, TAKASHI SUGINO, KENICHI URAKAMI, AKIRA ASAI, NAKAMASA HAYASHI, KOICHI MITSUYA, YOKO NAKASU, KEN YAMAGUCHI, and YASUTO AKIYAMA
Cancer Genomics Proteomics January-February 2017 14 (1) 83-91 OPEN ACCESS ARTICLE FREE
http://cgp.iiarjournals.org/content/14/1/83.abstract

The evaluation of trustworthiness to identify health insurance fraud in dentistry

S09333657.gif

Publication date: Available online 27 December 2016
Source:Artificial Intelligence in Medicine
Author(s): Shu-Li Wang, Hao-Ting Pai, Mei-Fang Wu, Fan Wu, Chen-Lin Li
ObjectiveAccording to the investigations of the U.S. Government Accountability Office (GAO), health insurance fraud has caused an enormous pecuniary loss in the U.S. In Taiwan, in dentistry the problem is getting worse if dentists (authorized entities) file fraudulent claims. Several methods have been developed to solve health insurance fraud; however, these methods are like a rule-based mechanism. Without exploring the behavior patterns, these methods are time-consuming and ineffective; in addition, they are inadequate for managing the fraudulent dentists.MethodsBased on social network theory, we develop an evaluation approach to solve the problem of cross-dentist fraud. The trustworthiness score of a dentist is calculated based upon the amount and type of dental operations performed on the same patient and the same tooth by that dentist and other dentists.ResultsThe simulation provides the following evidence. (1) This specific type of fraud can be identified effectively using our evaluation approach. (2) A retrospective study for the claims is also performed. (3) The proposed method is effective in identifying the fraudulent dentists.ConclusionsWe provide a new direction for investigating the genuineness of claims data. If the insurer can detect fraudulent dentists using the traditional method and the proposed method simultaneously, the detection will be more transparent and ultimately reduce the losses caused by fraudulent claims.

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The evaluation of trustworthiness to identify health insurance fraud in dentistry

S09333657.gif

Publication date: Available online 27 December 2016
Source:Artificial Intelligence in Medicine
Author(s): Shu-Li Wang, Hao-Ting Pai, Mei-Fang Wu, Fan Wu, Chen-Lin Li
ObjectiveAccording to the investigations of the U.S. Government Accountability Office (GAO), health insurance fraud has caused an enormous pecuniary loss in the U.S. In Taiwan, in dentistry the problem is getting worse if dentists (authorized entities) file fraudulent claims. Several methods have been developed to solve health insurance fraud; however, these methods are like a rule-based mechanism. Without exploring the behavior patterns, these methods are time-consuming and ineffective; in addition, they are inadequate for managing the fraudulent dentists.MethodsBased on social network theory, we develop an evaluation approach to solve the problem of cross-dentist fraud. The trustworthiness score of a dentist is calculated based upon the amount and type of dental operations performed on the same patient and the same tooth by that dentist and other dentists.ResultsThe simulation provides the following evidence. (1) This specific type of fraud can be identified effectively using our evaluation approach. (2) A retrospective study for the claims is also performed. (3) The proposed method is effective in identifying the fraudulent dentists.ConclusionsWe provide a new direction for investigating the genuineness of claims data. If the insurer can detect fraudulent dentists using the traditional method and the proposed method simultaneously, the detection will be more transparent and ultimately reduce the losses caused by fraudulent claims.

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Automated Facial Recognition of Computed Tomography-Derived Facial Images: Patient Privacy Implications

Abstract

The recognizability of facial images extracted from publically available medical scans raises patient privacy concerns. This study examined how accurately facial images extracted from computed tomography (CT) scans are objectively matched with corresponding photographs of the scanned individuals. The test subjects were 128 adult Americans ranging in age from 18 to 60 years, representing both sexes and three self-identified population (ancestral descent) groups (African, European, and Hispanic). Using facial recognition software, the 2D images of the extracted facial models were compared for matches against five differently sized photo galleries. Depending on the scanning protocol and gallery size, in 6–61 % of the cases, a correct life photo match for a CT-derived facial image was the top ranked image in the generated candidate lists, even when blind searching in excess of 100,000 images. In 31–91 % of the cases, a correct match was located within the top 50 images. Few significant differences (p > 0.05) in match rates were observed between the sexes or across the three age cohorts. Highly significant differences (p < 0.01) were, however, observed across the three ancestral cohorts and between the two CT scanning protocols. Results suggest that the probability of a match between a facial image extracted from a medical scan and a photograph of the individual is moderately high. The facial image data inherent in commonly employed medical imaging modalities may need to consider a potentially identifiable form of “comparable” facial imagery and protected as such under patient privacy legislation.

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Liver Ultrasound Image Segmentation Using Region-Difference Filters

Abstract

In this paper, region-difference filters for the segmentation of liver ultrasound (US) images are proposed. Region-difference filters evaluate maximum difference of the average of two regions of the window around the center pixel. Implementing the filters on the whole image gives region-difference image. This image is then converted into binary image and morphologically operated for segmenting the desired lesion from the ultrasound image. The proposed method is compared with the maximum a posteriori-Markov random field (MAP-MRF), Chan-Vese active contour method (CV-ACM), and active contour region-scalable fitting energy (RSFE) methods. MATLAB code available online for the RSFE method is used for comparison whereas MAP-MRF and CV-ACM methods are coded in MATLAB by authors. Since no comparison is available on common database for the performance of the three methods, therefore, performance comparison of the three methods and proposed method was done on liver US images obtained from PGIMER, Chandigarh, India and from online resource. A radiologist blindly analyzed segmentation results of the 4 methods implemented on 56 images and had selected the segmentation result obtained from the proposed method as best for 46 test US images. For the remaining 10 US images, the proposed method performance was very near to the other three segmentation methods. The proposed segmentation method obtained the overall accuracy of 99.32% in comparison to the overall accuracy of 85.9, 98.71, and 68.21% obtained by MAP-MRF, CV-ACM, and RSFE methods, respectively. Computational time taken by the proposed method is 5.05 s compared to the time of 26.44, 24.82, and 28.36 s taken by MAP-MRF, CV-ACM, and RSFE methods, respectively.

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Development and Evaluation of a Semi-automated Segmentation Tool and a Modified Ellipsoid Formula for Volumetric Analysis of the Kidney in Non-contrast T2-Weighted MR Images

Abstract

Volumetric analysis of the kidney parenchyma provides additional information for the detection and monitoring of various renal diseases. Therefore the purposes of the study were to develop and evaluate a semi-automated segmentation tool and a modified ellipsoid formula for volumetric analysis of the kidney in non-contrast T2-weighted magnetic resonance (MR)-images. Three readers performed semi-automated segmentation of the total kidney volume (TKV) in axial, non-contrast-enhanced T2-weighted MR-images of 24 healthy volunteers (48 kidneys) twice. A semi-automated threshold-based segmentation tool was developed to segment the kidney parenchyma. Furthermore, the three readers measured renal dimensions (length, width, depth) and applied different formulas to calculate the TKV. Manual segmentation served as a reference volume. Volumes of the different methods were compared and time required was recorded. There was no significant difference between the semi-automatically and manually segmented TKV (p = 0.31). The difference in mean volumes was 0.3 ml (95% confidence interval (CI), −10.1 to 10.7 ml). Semi-automated segmentation was significantly faster than manual segmentation, with a mean difference = 188 s (220 vs. 408 s); p < 0.05. Volumes did not differ significantly comparing the results of different readers. Calculation of TKV with a modified ellipsoid formula (ellipsoid volume × 0.85) did not differ significantly from the reference volume; however, the mean error was three times higher (difference of mean volumes −0.1 ml; CI −31.1 to 30.9 ml; p = 0.95). Applying the modified ellipsoid formula was the fastest way to get an estimation of the renal volume (41 s). Semi-automated segmentation and volumetric analysis of the kidney in native T2-weighted MR data delivers accurate and reproducible results and was significantly faster than manual segmentation. Applying a modified ellipsoid formula quickly provides an accurate kidney volume.

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Detection of smoke-induced pulmonary lesions by hyperpolarized 129Xe diffusion kurtosis imaging in rat models

Purpose

To demonstrate that hyperpolarized (HP) xenon diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) is able to detect smoke-induced pulmonary lesions in rat models.

Methods

Multi-b DKI with hyperpolarized xenon was used for the first time in five smoke-exposed rats and five healthy rats. Additionally, DKI with b values of up to 80 s/cm2 were used in two healthy rats to probe the critical b value (a limit beyond which the DKI cannot describe the non-Gaussian diffusion).

Results

The mean apparent diffusion coefficient (Dapp) and diffusion kurtosis (Kapp) extracted by the DKI model revealed significant changes in the smoke-exposed rats compared with those in the control group (P = 0.027 and 0.039, respectively), exhibiting strong correlations with mean linear intercept (Lm) from the histology. Although the maximum b value was increased to 80 s/cm2, the DKI could still describe the non-Gaussian diffusion (R2 > 0.97).

Conclusion

DKI with hyperpolarized xenon exhibited sensitivity in the detection of pulmonary lesions induced by smoke, including moderate emphysema and small airway diseases. The critical b value was rarely exceeded in DKI of the lungs due to the limited gradient strength of the MRI scanner used in our study. Magn Reson Med, 2016. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

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True and apparent optogenetic BOLD fMRI signals

Purpose

Optogenetic fMRI (ofMRI) is a novel tool in neurophysiology and neuroimaging. The method is prone to light-induced artifacts, two of which were investigated in this study.

Methods

ofMRI was performed in rats using two excitatory opsins (ChR2 and C1V1TT) virally transduced in somatosensory cortex or thalamus. Heat-induced apparent BOLD activation at the site of the optical fiber and stimulation light–induced activation of the visual pathways were investigated, and control experiments for these two artifacts were established.

Results

Specific optogenetic BOLD activation was observed with both opsins, accompanied by BOLD in the visual pathways. Unspecific heat-induced BOLD was ruled out by a control experiment employing low-level constant illumination in addition to pulsed optogenetic stimulation. Activation of the visual pathways was confirmed to be physiological by direct visual stimulation of the eyes and was suppressed by additional low-level constant light to the eyes. Light inside the brain was identified as one source of the BOLD signal observed in the visual pathways.

Conclusion

ofMRI is a method of tremendous potential, but unspecific activations in fMRI not caused by the activation of opsins must be avoided or recognized as such. The control experiments presented here allow for validating the specificity of optogenetic stimulation. Magn Reson Med 77:126–136, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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Management of HCV infection in the penitentiary setting in the direct-acting antivirals era: practical recommendations from an expert panel

Abstract

Background

The prevalence of HCV infection is higher among prisoners than in the general population. The introduction of HCV direct-acting antivirals (DAA) holds the potential to improve clinical outcomes also in inmates. However, treatment of hepatitis C in inmates has to face several clinical and logistical issues which are peculiar of prison environment. Recommendations on the management of HCV infection specific for the penitentiary setting in the DAA era remain scant. The Italian Society for Penitentiary Medicine and Healthcare has, therefore, issued these recommendations, to provide clinicians with a guide for the comprehensive management of HCV infection in the restriction setting, taking into account its peculiar characteristics.

Results

Dedicated diagnostic and treatment procedures should be established in each prison. In particular, the use of DAAs appears crucial to provide patients with an effective therapeutic option, able to overcome the limitations of IFN-based regimens with a short period of treatment. DAA treatment should be initiated as soon as possible in all eligible subjects with the aim to cure the patient, as well as to limit the transmission of HCV infection both inside the penitentiary system and to the free community, once the inmates ends his/her release. Importantly, efforts should be made to open a discussion with regulatory bodies, to define specific regulations aimed to guarantee wide access to effective therapies of all eligible patients, to optimize the management of and the adherence to the HCV treatment, and to ensure the therapeutic continuity after discharge from prison.

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