Dioncophylline F (1), the first 5,8′-coupled dioncophyllaceous alkaloid (i.e., lacking an oxygen function at C-6 and possessing an R-configuration at C-3), was isolated from the recently described Congolese liana Ancistrocladus ileboensis. Two further, likewise Dioncophyllaceae-type, alkaloids, the dioncophyllines C2 (2) and D2 (3), were identified, along with the Ancistrocladaceae-type compound ancistrocladisine B (4), which is oxygenated at C-6 and S-configured at C-3. The structures of the new compounds were determined by spectroscopic, chemical, and chiroptical methods. The stereostructure of 1 was further confirmed by total synthesis. As a consequence of the lack of a methyl group ortho to their biaryl axes, both dioncophylline F (1) and the 7,8′-coupled dioncophylline D2 (3) occur as pairs of configurationally semistable and, thus, slowly interconverting atropo-diastereomers, whereas dioncophylline C2 (2), with its 5,1′-linkage, is configurationally stable at the axis. Eight further known naphthylisoquinolines were isolated from A. ileboensis, among them dioncophylline A (P-10), its 4′-O-demethyl analogue P-11, and 5′-O-methyldioncophylline D (7), which were found to display strong cytotoxic activities against multiple myeloma INA-6 cells (P-10 even stronger than the standard drug melphalan) and against drug-sensitive acute lymphoblastic CCRF-CEM leukemia cells and their multidrug-resistant subline, CEM/ADR5000. Moreover, the dioncophyllines 1, 3, and 7 showed high-and specific-activities against the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum.