Medicine A

iatriki-sfakianakis.blogspot.com?w=16&cs=815028064
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Medicine by Alexandros G.Sfakianakis,Anapafseos 5 Agios Nikolaos,Crete 72100,Greece,tel :00302841026
Obstructive sleep apnea in postmenopausal women: a comparative study using drug induced sleep endoscopy
Abstract Introduction: The key to successful treatment of OSAS is to individually tailor such treatment. Thus, it is very important to determine the severity of OSAS, its pattern, and the extent of collapse, by gender, age, and BMI. Objective: The objective of the study was to understand the characteristics…

iatriki-sfakianakis.blogspot.com?w=16&cs=815028064
15:57

Medicine by Alexandros G.Sfakianakis,Anapafseos 5 Agios Nikolaos,Crete 72100,Greece,tel :00302841026
Comparison of microRNA profiles between benign and malignant salivary gland tumors in tissue, blood and saliva samples: a prospective, case-control study
Abstract Introduction: Salivary gland tumors (SGTs) are rare head and neck malignancies consisting of a spectrum of tumors with different biological behaviors. Objective: In this study we aimed to find out differential expression of microRNA profiles between benign and malignant SGTs. Methods: We investigated…

iatriki-sfakianakis.blogspot.com?w=16&cs=815028064
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Medicine by Alexandros G.Sfakianakis,Anapafseos 5 Agios Nikolaos,Crete 72100,Greece,tel :00302841026
The role of facial canal diameter in the pathogenesis and grade of Bell’s palsy: a study by high resolution computed tomography
Abstract Introduction: The exact etiology of Bell’s palsy still remains obscure. The only authenticated finding is inflammation and edema of the facial nerve leading to entrapment inside the facial canal. Objective: To identify if there is any relationship between the grade of Bell’s palsy and diameter…

iatriki-sfakianakis.blogspot.com?w=16&cs=815028064
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Medicine by Alexandros G.Sfakianakis,Anapafseos 5 Agios Nikolaos,Crete 72100,Greece,tel :00302841026
Airway reconstruction: review of an approach to the advanced-stage laryngotracheal stenosis
Abstract Introduction: The management of laryngotracheal stenosis is complex and is influenced by multiple factors that can affect the ultimate outcome. Advanced lesions represent a special challenge to the treating surgeon to find the best remedying technique. Objective: To review the efficacy of our…

iatriki-sfakianakis.blogspot.com?w=16&cs=815028064
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Medicine by Alexandros G.Sfakianakis,Anapafseos 5 Agios Nikolaos,Crete 72100,Greece,tel :00302841026
Ophthalmic complications of endoscopic sinus surgery
Abstract Introduction: The proximity of the paranasal sinuses to the orbit and its contents allows the occurence of injuries in both primary or revision surgery. The majority of orbital complications are minor. The major complications are seen in 0.01-2.25% and some of them can be serious, leading to…

iatriki-sfakianakis.blogspot.com?w=16&cs=815028064
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Medicine by Alexandros G.Sfakianakis,Anapafseos 5 Agios Nikolaos,Crete 72100,Greece,tel :00302841026
LS CE-Chirp® vs. Click in the neuroaudiological diagnosis by ABR
Abstract Introduction: The chirp stimulus was developed seeking to counterbalance the delay of the sound wave on its journey through the cochlea, allowing the hair cells to depolarize at the same time. The result is a simultaneous stimulation providing better neural synchrony and, consequently, the recording…

iatriki-sfakianakis.blogspot.com?w=16&cs=815028064
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Medicine by Alexandros G.Sfakianakis,Anapafseos 5 Agios Nikolaos,Crete 72100,Greece,tel :00302841026
Ethics is the best professional policy
Abstract Introduction: The relationship between gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is still a controversial issue in literature. Objective: A systematic review of the association between these two diseases in adult patients. Methods: Systematic review in PubMed and…

iatriki-sfakianakis.blogspot.com?w=16&cs=815028064
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Medicine by Alexandros G.Sfakianakis,Anapafseos 5 Agios Nikolaos,Crete 72100,Greece,tel :00302841026
Combined ocular and cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potential in individuals with vestibular hyporeflexia and in patients with Ménière’s disease,
Abstract Introduction: The vestibular evoked myogenic potential is a potential of mean latency that measures the muscle response to auditory stimulation. This potential can be generated from the contraction of the sternocleidomastoid muscle and also from the contraction of extraocular muscles in response…

iatriki-sfakianakis.blogspot.com?w=16&cs=815028064
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Medicine by Alexandros G.Sfakianakis,Anapafseos 5 Agios Nikolaos,Crete 72100,Greece,tel :00302841026
Deep neck abscesses: study of 101 cases
Abstract Introduction: Although the incidence of Deep Cervical Abscess (DCA) has decreased mainly for the availability of antibiotics, this infection still occurs with considerable frequency and can be associated with high morbidity and mortality. Objective: This study aimed to present our clinical-surgical…

iatriki-sfakianakis.blogspot.com?w=16&cs=815028064
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Medicine by Alexandros G.Sfakianakis,Anapafseos 5 Agios Nikolaos,Crete 72100,Greece,tel :00302841026
Relation between chronic rhinosinusitis and gastroesophageal reflux in adults: systematic review
Abstract Introduction: The relationship between gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is still a controversial issue in literature. Objective: A systematic review of the association between these two diseases in adult patients. Methods: Systematic review in PubMed and…

iatriki-sfakianakis.blogspot.com?w=16&cs=815028064
15:57

Medicine by Alexandros G.Sfakianakis,Anapafseos 5 Agios Nikolaos,Crete 72100,Greece,tel :00302841026
Postoperative otorhinolaryngologic complications in transnasal endoscopic surgery to access the skull base
Abstract Introduction: The large increase in the number of transnasal endoscopic skull base surgeries is a consequence of greater knowledge of the anatomic region, the development of specific materials and instruments, and especially the use of the nasoseptal flap as a barrier between the sinus tract…

iatriki-sfakianakis.blogspot.com?w=16&cs=815028064
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Medicine by Alexandros G.Sfakianakis,Anapafseos 5 Agios Nikolaos,Crete 72100,Greece,tel :00302841026
Vertebral artery dissection: an important differential diagnosis of vertigo
Abstract Introduction: The relationship between gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is still a controversial issue in literature. Objective: A systematic review of the association between these two diseases in adult patients. Methods: Systematic review in PubMed and…

iatriki-sfakianakis.blogspot.com?w=16&cs=815028064
15:57

Medicine by Alexandros G.Sfakianakis,Anapafseos 5 Agios Nikolaos,Crete 72100,Greece,tel :00302841026
First branchial cleft fistula: a difficult challenge
Abstract Introduction: The relationship between gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is still a controversial issue in literature. Objective: A systematic review of the association between these two diseases in adult patients. Methods: Systematic review in PubMed and…

otorhinolaryngologysfakianakisal.blogspot.com?w=16&cs=3807766444
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OtorhinolaryngologySfakianakis
Lower limb kinematics during the swing phase in patients with knee osteoarthritis measured using an inertial sensor
Publication date: September 2017Source:Gait & Posture, Volume 57 Author(s): Kenji Tanimoto, Makoto Takahashi, Kazuki Tokuda, Tomonori Sawada, Masaya Anan, Koichi Shinkoda BackgroundDuring gait, the swing limb requires flexible control to adapt to ever changing environmental circumstances. However,…

otorhinolaryngologysfakianakis.blogspot.com?w=16&cs=647959084
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OtoRhinoLaryngology by Alexandros G.Sfakianakis
Efficacy of a standardized extract of Matricariae chamomilla L., Melissa officinalis L. and tyndallized Lactobacillus acidophilus (HA122) in infantile colic: An open randomized controlled trial
Abstract Background Infant colic (IC) is a prevalent physiological event of infants, which can disrupt the child’s home environment. We aimed to investigate the effectiveness of a mixture of Matricariae chamomilla L., Melissa officinalis L. and tyndallized Lactobacillus acidophilus (HA122) compared…

scholarmedsfakianakis.blogspot.com?w=16&cs=1684924305
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ΩΡΛ Ιατρικά Άρθρα απ’ το Μελετητή
Scholar : The American Journal of Bioethics, Volume 17, Issue 7, July 2017 is now available online on Taylor & Francis Online
The online platform for Taylor & Francis Online content The American Journal of Bioethics, Volume 17, Issue 7, July 2017 is now available online on Taylor & Francis Online. This new issue contains the following articles: Guest Editorial Modernizing…

medsfakianakis.blogspot.com?w=16&cs=3897793244
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Medicine by Sfakianakis Alexandros
Seeing the soil through the net: an eye-opener on the soil map of the Flemish region (Belgium)
A systematic soil survey of Belgium was conducted from 1948 to 1991. Field surveys were done at the detailed scale of 1:5000 with the final maps published at a 1:20,000 scale. The legend of these detailed soil maps (scale 1:20,000) has been converted to the 3rd edition of the international soil classification…

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Medicine by Sfakianakis Alexandros
Identification of candidate oncogenes and chromosomal breakpoint sequencing by targeted locus amplification in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia
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medsfakianakis.blogspot.com?w=16&cs=3897793244
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Medicine by Sfakianakis Alexandros
Comparison between FLT3-ITD measurements based on RNA and DNA of childhood myeloid leukemia samples
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medsfakianakis.blogspot.com?w=16&cs=3897793244
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Medicine by Sfakianakis Alexandros
The long non-coding RNA H19 is regulated by LIN28B
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medsfakianakis.blogspot.com?w=16&cs=3897793244
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Medicine by Sfakianakis Alexandros
Morphology and spatial patterns of Macrotermes mounds in the SE Katanga, D.R. Congo
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medsfakianakis.blogspot.com?w=16&cs=3897793244
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Medicine by Sfakianakis Alexandros
Delineating the roles of lysine 27 methylation-associated epigenetic modulators in T cell leukemia
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iatrikisfakianakis.blogspot.com?w=16&cs=696837349
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Ιατρικά Άρθρα Αλέξανδρος Γ. Σφακιανάκης
Sporotrichosis: Update on Diagnostic Techniques
Abstract Purpose of Review Sporotrichosis, the disease caused by Sporothrix spp, ranges from subcutaneous infections to the severe disseminated or invasive diseases. The taxonomy of Sporothrix has been revised. The subcutaneous disease is suspected easily, but the extra-cutaneous disease is diagnosed…

medicine-alsfakia.blogspot.com?w=16&cs=4186838625
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Medicine Sfakianakis G. Alexandros
Toll like Receptor 2 engagement on CD4+ T cells promotes TH9 differentiation and function
We have recently demonstrated that mycobacterial ligands engage Toll like receptor 2 (TLR2) on CD4+ T cells and up-regulate T-cell receptor (TCR) triggered Th1 responses in vitro and in vivo. To better understand the role of T-cell expressed TLR2 on CD4+ T-cell differentiation and function, we conducted…

medicine-alsfakia.blogspot.com?w=16&cs=4186838625
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Medicine Sfakianakis G. Alexandros
Extracellular vesicles mediate intercellular communication: Transfer of functionally active microRNAs by microvesicles into phagocytes
Cell activation and apoptosis lead to the formation of extracellular vesicles (EVs) such as exosomes or microvesicles (MVs). EVs have been shown to modulate immune responses; recently, MVs were described to carry microRNA (miRNA) and a role for MVs in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases has been…

otorhinolaryngologysfakianakisal.blogspot.com?w=16&cs=3807766444
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OtorhinolaryngologySfakianakis
Preparation and characterization of bioadhesive system containing hypericin for local photodynamic therapy
Publication date: Available online 29 June 2017Source:Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy Author(s): Fernanda Belincanta Borghi-Pangoni, Mariana Volpato Junqueira, Sabrina Barbosa de Souza Ferreira, Larissa Lachi Silva, Bruno Ribeiro Rabello, Lidiane Vizioli de Castro, Mauro Luciano Baesso, Andréa…

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Cancer by Sfakianakis G.Alexandros
Dickkopf-4 is frequently overexpressed in epithelial ovarian carcinoma and promotes tumor invasion
Abstract Background Dickkopf-4 (DKK4), a member of DKK family, appears to be a divergent protein. It remained multi-biological functions in carcinogenesis. The effect of DKK4 on the ovarian cancer cells remains unclear. This study…

cancersfakianakis.tumblr.com?w=16&cs=562404105
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Cancer by Sfakianakis G.Alexandros
Optimizing the treatment of bevacizumab as first-line therapy for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative advanced breast cancer: an updated meta-analysis of published randomized trials
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Cancer by Sfakianakis G.Alexandros
Clinical importance of serum HE4 and MMP2 levels in endometrial cancer patients
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Cancer by Sfakianakis G.Alexandros
Phase I dose-escalation study of long-acting pasireotide in patients with neuroendocrine tumors
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Cancer by Sfakianakis G.Alexandros
Patients harboring ALK rearrangement adenocarcinoma after acquired resistance to crizotinib and transformation to small-cell lung cancer: a case report
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Cancer by Sfakianakis G.Alexandros
RE: “RISK PREDICTION FOR EPITHELIAL OVARIAN CANCER IN 11 UNITED STATES–BASED CASE-CONTROL STUDIES: INCORPORATION OF EPIDEMIOLOGIC RISK FACTORS AND 17 CONFIRMED GENETIC LOCI”
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Cancer by Sfakianakis G.Alexandros
Protecting Confidentiality in Cancer Registry Data With Geographic Identifiers
AbstractThe National Cancer Institute’s Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program releases research files of cancer registry data. These files include geographic information at the county level, but no finer. Access to finer geography, such as census tract identifiers, would enable richer analyses—for…

cancersfakianakis.tumblr.com?w=16&cs=562404105
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Cancer by Sfakianakis G.Alexandros
RE: “ASSOCIATIONS OF ACCELEROMETRY-ASSESSED AND SELF-REPORTED PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND SEDENTARY BEHAVIOR WITH ALL-CAUSE AND CARDIOVASCULAR MORTALITY AMONG US ADULTS”
In the article “Associations of Accelerometry-Assessed and Self-Reported Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior With All-Cause and Cardiovascular Mortality Among US Adults” by Evenson et al. (1), the units of measure for screen time were incorrectly listed as hours/week and MET-hours/week in Tables…

cancersfakianakis.tumblr.com?w=16&cs=562404105
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Cancer by Sfakianakis G.Alexandros
Skin Pigmentation and Risk of Hearing Loss in Women
AbstractBlack individuals have a lower risk of hearing loss than do whites, possibly because of differences in cochlear melanocytes. Previous studies have suggested that darker-skinned individuals tend to have more inner ear melanin, and cochlear melanocytes are important in generating the endocochlear…

cancersfakianakis.tumblr.com?w=16&cs=562404105
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Cancer by Sfakianakis G.Alexandros
RE: “MULTI-SITE CLINICAL ASSESSMENT OF MYALGIC ENCEPHALOMYELITIS/CHRONIC FATIGUE SYNDROME (MCAM): DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A PROSPECTIVE/RETROSPECTIVE ROLLING COHORT STUDY”
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Cancer by Sfakianakis G.Alexandros
Association Between Serum Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor 1 and Trajectories of Functional Status The Northern Manhattan Study
AbstractWe hypothesized that tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1) levels are associated with long-term trajectories of functional status independently of vascular risk factors and the occurrence of stroke and myocardial infarction (MI) during follow-up. In the Northern Manhattan Study, stroke-free…

cancersfakianakis.tumblr.com?w=16&cs=562404105
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Cancer by Sfakianakis G.Alexandros
Cigarette Smoking and Risk of Incident Rosacea in Women
AbstractThe relationship between smoking and rosacea is poorly understood. We aimed to conduct the first cohort study to determine the association between smoking and risk of incident rosacea. We included 95,809 women from Nurses’ Health Study II (1991–2005). Information on smoking was collected biennially…

cancersfakianakis.tumblr.com?w=16&cs=562404105
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Cancer by Sfakianakis G.Alexandros
Modeling Seasonal and Spatiotemporal Variation: The Example of Respiratory Prescribing
AbstractMany measures of chronic diseases, including respiratory disease, exhibit seasonal variation together with residual correlation between consecutive time periods and neighboring areas. We demonstrate a strategy for modeling data that exhibit both seasonal trend and spatiotemporal correlation,…

cancersfakianakis.tumblr.com?w=16&cs=562404105
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Cancer by Sfakianakis G.Alexandros
Time-Dependent Associations Between Body Composition, Physical Activity, and Current Asthma in Women: A Marginal Structural Modeling Analysis
AbstractThe role of obesity in adult asthma is well-known and has been partly attributed to a confounding role of physical inactivity. However, the interrelationships between obesity, physical activity, and asthma have been incompletely addressed, probably because their time-dependent and bidirectional…

cancersfakianakis.tumblr.com?w=16&cs=562404105
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Cancer by Sfakianakis G.Alexandros
Original Findings and Updated Meta-Analysis for the Association Between Maternal Diabetes and Risk for Congenital Heart Disease Phenotypes
AbstractMaternal diabetes is associated with congenital heart defects (CHDs) as a group, but few studies have assessed risk for specific CHD phenotypes. We analyzed these relationships using data from the Texas Birth Defects Registry and statewide vital records for deliveries taking place in 1999–2009…

cancersfakianakis.tumblr.com?w=16&cs=562404105
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Cancer by Sfakianakis G.Alexandros
RE: “RESPONSE AND FOLLOW-UP BIAS IN COHORT STUDIES”
In the article “Response and Follow-up Bias in Cohort Studies” by Greenland (1), there is a missing decimal point in the first footnote of Table 3. The risk ratio of 70 should be 0.70. from Cancer via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2trLoQR via IFTTT

earnosethroatmedicinesfakianakis.tumblr.com?w=16&cs=1933801890
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OtoRhinoLaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery
Neuropsychiatry phenotype in asthma: Psychological stress-induced alterations of the neuroendocrine-immune system in allergic airway inflammation
Publication date: Available online 29 June 2017Source:Allergology International Author(s): Isao OhnoSince the recognition of asthma as a syndrome with complex pathophysiological signs and symptoms, recent research has sought to classify asthma phenotypes based on its clinical and molecular pathological…

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OtoRhinoLaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery
CME Activities Calendar
▪ AAAAI QCDR for Practice Improvement 2017http://ift.tt/2t8oxr3

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OtoRhinoLaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery
Cover 1
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OtoRhinoLaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery
News & Notes
Are you seeking additional training in the causes and mechanisms of atopic and contact dermatitis? Need to enhance your overall hands-on skills to accurately apply patch tests and interpret the results? Mark your calendar for the new, live course “Eczema and Contact Dermatitis in the Allergy/Immunology…

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OtoRhinoLaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery
Brief Overview of This Month’s JACI
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OtoRhinoLaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery
News Beyond Our Pages
Infection with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) during infancy has been linked to increased risk for later onset of asthma. Additionally, prophylactic use within the first year of life of palivizumab, an mAb directed against the RSV fusion glycoprotein, protects against chronic wheezing through the…

earnosethroatmedicinesfakianakis.tumblr.com?w=16&cs=1933801890
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OtoRhinoLaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery
An exposome perspective: Early-life events and immune development in a changing world
Advances in metagenomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and systems biology are providing a new emphasis in research; interdisciplinary work suggests that personalized medicine is on the horizon. These advances are illuminating sophisticated interactions between human-associated microbes and the immune system….

earnosethroatmedicinesfakianakis.tumblr.com?w=16&cs=1933801890
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OtoRhinoLaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery
The environment, epigenome, and asthma
Asthma prevalence has been on the increase, especially in North America compared with other continents. However, the prevalence of asthma differs worldwide, and in many countries the prevalence is stable or decreasing. This highlights the influence of environmental exposures, such as allergens, air pollution,…

earnosethroatmedicinesfakianakis.tumblr.com?w=16&cs=1933801890
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OtoRhinoLaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery
Environmental determinants of allergy and asthma in early life
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earnosethroatmedicinesfakianakis.tumblr.com?w=16&cs=1933801890
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OtoRhinoLaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery
The Editors’ Choice
Perturbations or “dysbiosis” of the bronchial microbiota have been implicated in the pathogenesis of asthma. However, it remains unclear whether reported differences are reflective of atopy, a common comorbidity of asthma. In a National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute AsthmaNet study of well-characterized…

earnosethroatmedicinesfakianakis.tumblr.com?w=16&cs=1933801890
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OtoRhinoLaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery
The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology: An update on style and substance
Our stewardship of the Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (JACI) is now in its sophomore year.1 In this short time, we have had the privilege of working with our authors and readers and have endeavored to respond to your concerns and suggestions. We have instituted several changes in our quest…

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OtoRhinoLaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery
Information for Readers
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OtoRhinoLaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery
Correction
With regard to the article in the July 2016 issue entitled “Diminution of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 signaling inhibits vascular permeability and anaphylaxis” (J Allergy Clin Immunol 2016;138:187-99), it has been brought to the Editors’ attention that Fig 1 was incorrect as printed….

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OtoRhinoLaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery
Table of Contents
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OtoRhinoLaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery
Editorial Board
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medicine-sfakianakis.blogspot.com?w=16&cs=3712665604
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Medicine by Alexandros G. Sfakianakis,Anapafseos 5 Agios Nikolaos 72100 Crete Greece,00306932607174
Cells, Vol. 6, Pages 17: Standard Immunohistochemical Assays to Assess Autophagy in Mammalian Tissue
Autophagy is a highly conserved lysosomal degradation pathway with major impact on diverse human pathologies. Despite the development of different methodologies to detect autophagy both in vitro and in vivo, monitoring autophagy in tissue via immunohistochemical techniques is hampered due to the lack…

sfakianakis1.blogspot.com?w=16&cs=1240409760
15:43

Medicine by Alexandros G. Sfakianakis,Anapafseos 5 Agios Nikolaos 72100 Crete Greece,00306932607174
Increase in Hospital Discharges for Inflammatory Bowel Diseases in Chile Between 2001 and 2012
Abstract Aim To determine the number of annual hospital discharges for inflammatory bowel diseases in Chile. The hypothesis is that there is a significant increase in the hospital discharges due to this disease from 2001 to 2012. Materials and Methods This is a descriptive study. Data were obtained…

headandneckdiseases.blogspot.com?w=16&cs=2341930686
15:42

Head and Neck Diseases by Alexandros G.Sfakianakis
Evolution of Spitz Nevi
Abstract Background/Objectives Spitz nevi are melanocytic lesions with clinical, dermoscopic, and histopathologic presentations that may resemble those of melanoma. The evolution of Spitz nevi is a well-known feature. The objectives of this study were to investigate the clinical and dermoscopic…

iatrikisfakianakis.tumblr.com?w=16&cs=974219413
15:41

Medicine by Alexandros G.Sfakianakis,Anapafseos 5 Agios Nikolao
Photo-Induced Bending Behavior of Post-Crosslinked Liquid Crystalline Polymer/Polyurethane Blend Films
Photoresponsive blend films with post-crosslinked liquid crystalline polymer (CLCP) as a…

emergencymedicineas.blogspot.com?w=16&cs=3457582281
15:40

Emergency Medicine by Alexandros G. Sfakianakis
Prehospital parameters can help to predict coagulopathy and massive transfusion in trauma patients
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15:40

Emergency Medicine by Alexandros G. Sfakianakis
US Senate health bill would decimate long-term care coverage
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15:40

Emergency Medicine by Alexandros G. Sfakianakis
Reconstruction of AAOS type III and IV acetabular defects with the Ganz reinforcement ring: High failure in pelvic discontinuity
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15:40

Emergency Medicine by Alexandros G. Sfakianakis
Cancer researchers may overestimate reliability of mouse studies
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15:40

Emergency Medicine by Alexandros G. Sfakianakis
Concussion assessment recommendations not followed during last World Cup, research finds
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15:40

Emergency Medicine by Alexandros G. Sfakianakis
Smoking is a risk factor for proliferative vitreoretinopathy after traumatic retinal detachment
Retinafrom Emergency Medicine via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2trKrYS

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15:40

Emergency Medicine by Alexandros G. Sfakianakis
Markedly increased incidence of critical illness in adults with Type 1 diabetes
Diabetic Medicinefrom Emergency Medicine via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2trKqEi

emergencymedicineas.blogspot.com?w=16&cs=3457582281
15:40

Emergency Medicine by Alexandros G. Sfakianakis
US FDA outlines plan to speed rare disease drug reviews
Reuters Health Newsfrom Emergency Medicine via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2s8Za6Y

emergencymedicineas.blogspot.com?w=16&cs=3457582281
15:40

Emergency Medicine by Alexandros G. Sfakianakis
Patient-proxy agreement on the health-related quality of life one year after traumatic brain injury
Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitationfrom Emergency Medicine via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2trgxno

emergencymedicineas.blogspot.com?w=16&cs=3457582281
15:40

Emergency Medicine by Alexandros G. Sfakianakis
Intraoperative cholangiography during cholecystectomy among hospitalized Medicare beneficiaries with non-neoplastic biliary disease
The American Journal of Surgeryfrom Emergency Medicine via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2trGGCG

emergencymedicineas.blogspot.com?w=16&cs=3457582281
15:40

Emergency Medicine by Alexandros G. Sfakianakis
Impact of a cardiac intensivist on mortality in patients with cardiogenic shock
International Journal of Cardiologyfrom Emergency Medicine via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2s8FaBo

emergencymedicineas.blogspot.com?w=16&cs=3457582281
15:40

Emergency Medicine by Alexandros G. Sfakianakis
Effect of bariatric surgery on emergency department visits and hospitalizations for atrial fibrillation
The American Journal of Cardiologyfrom Emergency Medicine via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2s8CuE5

emergencymedicineas.blogspot.com?w=16&cs=3457582281
15:40

Emergency Medicine by Alexandros G. Sfakianakis
Risk factors for early return visits to the emergency department in patients with urinary tract infection
The American Journal of Emergency Medicinefrom Emergency Medicine via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2s98szM

emergencymedicineas.blogspot.com?w=16&cs=3457582281
15:40

Emergency Medicine by Alexandros G. Sfakianakis
Salvage of failed ankle arthrodesis after posttraumatic septic arthritis by Ilizarov external fixator: Mid-term results
Current Orthopaedic Practicefrom Emergency Medicine via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2trFXBx

emergencymedicineas.blogspot.com?w=16&cs=3457582281
15:40

Emergency Medicine by Alexandros G. Sfakianakis
Pain intensity, interference, and medication use after spinal cord injury: relationship with risk of mortality after controlling for socioeconomic and other health factors
Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitationfrom Emergency Medicine via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2s8OJAu

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Medicine

cancersfakianakis1.tumblr.com?w=16&cs=3000829352
16:17

Oncology
Left hepatectomy after right paramedian sectoriectomy
Abstract Repeat hepatectomy is beneficial for selected patients with recurrence of liver malignancies. However, the operative procedure becomes technically demanding when the previous hepatectomy was complex, with hepatic veins and stump of portal pedicles exposed on the liver transection…

cancersfakianakis1.tumblr.com?w=16&cs=3000829352
16:17

Oncology
Natural history of intramedullary spinal cord ependymoma in patients preferring nonoperative treatment
Abstract Surgical resection of intramedullary spinal cord ependymoma still remains the standard of care but is challenging and occasionally associated with poor outcome. The aim of this study is therefore to provide additional information regarding the natural history of conservatively…

cancersfakianakis1.tumblr.com?w=16&cs=3000829352
16:17

Oncology
Reduction in Social Activities Mediates the Relationship between Diarrhea and Distress in Rectal/Anal Cancer Survivors
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cancersfakianakis1.tumblr.com?w=16&cs=3000829352
16:17

Oncology
Understanding how Coping Strategies and Quality of Life maintain Hope in Patients deliberating Phase-I Trial Participation
Abstract ObjectiveThis study aimed to understand how hope and motivation of patients considering phase-I trial participation are affected by psychological factors such as coping strategies and locus of control (LoC), and general well-being as measured by the quality of life (QoL). MethodsAn exploratory…

medicine-sfakianakis.blogspot.com?w=16&cs=3712665604
16:17

Medicine by Alexandros G. Sfakianakis,Anapafseos 5 Agios Nikolaos 72100 Crete Greece,00306932607174
Doctors commended for their bravery in response to terrorist incidents
Two doctors have been commended for "running towards danger" in response to terrorist incidents in London and Manchester.12Jeeves Wijesuriya, a GP trainee and chair of the BMA Junior Doctors’… from # All Medicine by Alexandros G. Sfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader…

sfakianakis1.blogspot.com?w=16&cs=1240409760
16:16

Medicine by Alexandros G. Sfakianakis,Anapafseos 5 Agios Nikolaos 72100 Crete Greece,00306932607174
Assessing the Therapeutic Utility of Professional Continuous Glucose Monitoring in Type 2 Diabetes Across Various Therapies: A Retrospective Evaluation
Abstract Background There have been few large studies that have analyzed the effect of professional (masked) continuous glucose monitoring (P-CGM) on glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) who were on a broad spectrum of baseline therapies. Methods We performed a retrospective,…

sfakianakis1.blogspot.com?w=16&cs=1240409760
16:16

Medicine by Alexandros G. Sfakianakis,Anapafseos 5 Agios Nikolaos 72100 Crete Greece,00306932607174
Intracameral Dexamethasone Injection as Adjuvant Therapy in Endothelial Immune Reaction After Penetrating and Posterior Lamellar Keratoplasty: A Retrospective Clinical Observation
Abstract Introduction The aim of this observational study is to evaluate the effectiveness of an adjuvant intracameral corticosteroid injection (ICI) in cases of severe endothelial immune reaction (SEIR) (anterior chamber cells and flare, retrocorneal precipitates, Descemet’s folds, and corneal edema)…

medicine-sfakianakis.blogspot.com?w=16&cs=3712665604
16:15

Medicine by Alexandros G. Sfakianakis,Anapafseos 5 Agios Nikolaos 72100 Crete Greece,00306932607174
Sixty seconds on . . . the CEP
The what?You know, the CEP. Close friend of the STP, the IFR, and the RTT. It’s the capped expenditure process—another lovely phrase straight from the NHS Acronym Referral Site for England… from # All Medicine by Alexandros G. Sfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader…

medicine-sfakianakis.blogspot.com?w=16&cs=3712665604
16:15

Medicine by Alexandros G. Sfakianakis,Anapafseos 5 Agios Nikolaos 72100 Crete Greece,00306932607174
La sfida per l’Internet del futuro – La Stampa
La sfida per l’Internet del futuroLa Stampa I recenti progressi nel campo dell’intelligenza artificiale e dell’Internet delle cose sono essenziali per trasformare l’aumento inarrestabile delle informazioni in conoscenza, per unire il mondo fisico e quello virtuale e per integrare autonomia e…

medicine-sfakianakis.blogspot.com?w=16&cs=3712665604
16:15

Medicine by Alexandros G. Sfakianakis,Anapafseos 5 Agios Nikolaos 72100 Crete Greece,00306932607174
Find the flow: Harnessing the incredible power of living fluids
We’re beginning to learn the rules that govern how everything from flocks of birds to sperm cells flow, and it could transform technology and medicine from # All Medicine by Alexandros G. Sfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2u607yh via IFTTT

medicinebyalexandros.blogspot.com?w=16&cs=654263150
16:14

Medicine by Alexandros G.Sfakianakis
Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Clinical Features in Acute and Subacute Myelopathies
Abstract Differential diagnosis of acute and subacute transverse myelopathy includes inflammatory, infectious, vascular, metabolic and paraneoplastic etiologies. Information on the diagnostic approach to transverse myelopathy with regard to daily clinical practice is provided. The differentiation between…

scholarmedsfakianakis.blogspot.com?w=16&cs=1684924305
16:14

ΩΡΛ Ιατρικά Άρθρα απ’ το Μελετητή
Scholar : These new articles for Advanced Robotics are available online
The online platform for Taylor & Francis Online content New for Advanced Robotics and online now on Taylor & Francis Online: Full paper High path tracking control of an intelligent walking-support robot under time-varying friction and unknown parameters…

cancerologyoncologysfakianakis.wordpress.com?w=16&cs=2589301554
16:13

Cancerology Oncology
Preoperative fasting in children
1A012A033J03 http://ift.tt/2tttpsJ

iatrikisfakianakis.tumblr.com?w=16&cs=974219413
16:12

Medicine by Alexandros G.Sfakianakis,Anapafseos 5 Agios Nikolao
Augmenix debuts SpaceOar in Israel
Augmenix Inc. said this week that it launched its SpaceOar hydrogel device in Israel. The Bedford,…

iatrikisfakianakis.tumblr.com?w=16&cs=974219413
16:12

Medicine by Alexandros G.Sfakianakis,Anapafseos 5 Agios Nikolao
Shareholders revive class-action kickbacks suit against Cardiovascular Systems
Shareholders revived a purported class-action kickbacks lawsuit against Cardiovascular…

iatrikisfakianakis.tumblr.com?w=16&cs=974219413
16:12

Medicine by Alexandros G.Sfakianakis,Anapafseos 5 Agios Nikolao
Roche buys mySugr diabetes app
Swiss drugmaker Roche (PINK:RHHBY) said today that it bought diabetes management platform mySugr for…

iatrikisfakianakis.tumblr.com?w=16&cs=974219413
16:12

Medicine by Alexandros G.Sfakianakis,Anapafseos 5 Agios Nikolao
Congenital neonatal scalp arteriovenous malformation: a very rare entity
Congenital arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) of scalp are rare congenital vascular malformations….

iatrikisfakianakis.tumblr.com?w=16&cs=974219413
16:12

Medicine by Alexandros G.Sfakianakis,Anapafseos 5 Agios Nikolao
A case of acute confusion: Cushings syndrome presenting with primary hyperparathyroidism
Cushing’s syndrome is a rare disease. Cushing’s syndrome presenting as acute psychosis is an…

iatrikisfakianakis.tumblr.com?w=16&cs=974219413
16:12

Medicine by Alexandros G.Sfakianakis,Anapafseos 5 Agios Nikolao
The Spontaneous Adhesion of BMMC onto Self-Assembled Peptide Nanoscaffold without Activation Inhibits Its IgE-Mediated Degranulation
Mast cells play a distinct role in the innate immune response. Engineered microenvironments for the…

medicine-sfakianakis.blogspot.com?w=16&cs=3712665604
16:12

Medicine by Alexandros G. Sfakianakis,Anapafseos 5 Agios Nikolaos 72100 Crete Greece,00306932607174
Development of a pneumatic soft actuator with pleated inflatable structures
. from ! Medicine by Alexandros G. Sfakianakis via Αλέξανδρος Σφακιανάκης on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2txq251 via IFTTT

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16:12

Medicine by Alexandros G. Sfakianakis,Anapafseos 5 Agios Nikolaos 72100 Crete Greece,00306932607174
Medicine Sfakianakis G. Alexandros
Ροές που μπορεί να σας αρέσουν Να μην εμφανιστεί αυτό ξανά Cardiovascular / Cardiology News From Medical News Today Latest Health News and Medical News posted throughout the day, every day. OtoRhinoLaryngology – Alexandros…

medicine-sfakianakis.blogspot.com?w=16&cs=3712665604
16:03

Medicine by Alexandros G. Sfakianakis,Anapafseos 5 Agios Nikolaos 72100 Crete Greece,00306932607174
RT @CarrascalAlvaro : "..pats are their own best Drs., & engag. them in their care is not an emotion. ideal, but an impactful interv. w/ rea…
RT @CarrascalAlvaro : "..pats are their own best Drs., & engag. them in their care is not an emotion. ideal, but an impactful interv. w/ rea… from # All Medicine by Alexandros G. Sfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://twitter.com/ecancer/status/880761554051923968 via IFTTT

medicine-sfakianakis.blogspot.com?w=16&cs=3712665604
16:03

Medicine by Alexandros G. Sfakianakis,Anapafseos 5 Agios Nikolaos 72100 Crete Greece,00306932607174
Jason Read: The Politics of Transindividuality
from # All Medicine by Alexandros G. Sfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2sYe5nm via IFTTT

medicine-alsfakia.blogspot.com?w=16&cs=4186838625
16:02

Medicine Sfakianakis G. Alexandros
pleomorphic lipoblasts
Images – Pleomorphic lipoblasts in well-differentiated liposarcoma / WLS https://twitter.com/smlungpathguy/status/880612355159273473 https://twitter.com/JMGardnerMD/status/880707319407022081 See also lipoblasts from $Archeogenetics via Alexandros on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2s94U0r via IFTTT

medicine-alsfakia.blogspot.com?w=16&cs=4186838625
16:02

Medicine Sfakianakis G. Alexandros
mandibular SCC
mandibular squamous cell carcinoma Images Mandible resection for squamous cell carcinoma https://twitter.com/JMGardnerMD/status/880603060191494149 See also mandibular tumors squamous cell carcinoma / SCC from $Archeogenetics via Alexandros on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2trNnV6 via IFTTT

medicine-alsfakia.blogspot.com?w=16&cs=4186838625
16:02

Medicine Sfakianakis G. Alexandros
nodal metastasis of chondrosarcoma
Images Nodal metastasis of a chondrosarcoma https://twitter.com/BellaMicheleang/status/880101424767668225 See also nodal metastasis from $Archeogenetics via Alexandros on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2s9ibpS via IFTTT

medicine-alsfakia.blogspot.com?w=16&cs=4186838625
16:02

Medicine Sfakianakis G. Alexandros
digestive duplication cysts
Images Duplication cyst in mesocolon / colonic duplication cyst https://twitter.com/steland011/status/879959512496603136 See also duplication cysts digestive duplication cysts from $Archeogenetics via Alexandros on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2trW8ih via IFTTT

medicine-alsfakia.blogspot.com?w=16&cs=4186838625
16:02

Medicine Sfakianakis G. Alexandros
duplication cysts
Examples Duplication cyst in mesocolon / colonic duplication cyst https://twitter.com/steland011/status/879959512496603136 See also cysts digestive duplication cysts from $Archeogenetics via Alexandros on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2s8RNMU via IFTTT

medicine-alsfakia.blogspot.com?w=16&cs=4186838625
16:02

Medicine Sfakianakis G. Alexandros
nodal pathology
pathology of the lymph node Pathology : nodal pathology / nodal histopathology nodal anomalies nodal lesional syndromes nodal diseases nodal tumors nodal lymphomas B-cell lymphomas T-cell lymphomas Open references Histopathology of the Lymph Nodes. Susan A. Elmore. 2006. doi:10.1080/01926230600964722….

medicine-alsfakia.blogspot.com?w=16&cs=4186838625
16:01

Medicine Sfakianakis G. Alexandros
silicone foreign body reaction
silicone granuloma Images silicone granuloma / silicone foreign body reaction https://twitter.com/leilalangston/status/880248134726635520 See also silicone foreign body reaction from $Archeogenetics via Alexandros on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2s8RL7K via IFTTT

medicine-alsfakia.blogspot.com?w=16&cs=4186838625
16:01

Medicine Sfakianakis G. Alexandros
hepatic amyloidosis
amyloidosis of the liver Images Extreme amyloidosis of the liver https://twitter.com/UTSW_GIpath/status/880182472805421056 See also amyloidosis / amyloidoses hepatic diseases hepatic anomalies from $Archeogenetics via Alexandros on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2trRAbt via IFTTT

medicine-alsfakia.blogspot.com?w=16&cs=4186838625
16:01

Medicine Sfakianakis G. Alexandros
disseminated pneumocystosis
disseminated Pneumocystis Images Lymph node in HIV+ male. Disseminated pneumocystis: No budding, No thick capsules. Very uniform cup-shaped organisms. https://twitter.com/hematogones/status/880190615484604417 Open references Disseminated pneumocystis carinii infection in AIDS. 1991. http://ift.tt/2ts4J4b...

iatrikisfakianakis.blogspot.com?w=16&cs=696837349
16:01

Ιατρικά Άρθρα Αλέξανδρος Γ. Σφακιανάκης
Pretransplant diabetes mellitus predicts worse outcomes of liver transplantation: evidence from meta-analysis
Abstract Background It has been demonstrated that the prognosis of liver transplantation (LT) is significantly influenced by pretransplant factors, such as diabetes mellitus (DM). However, inconsistent observations are obtained. Methods We comprehensively searched PubMed, Embase and Web of Science…

medicine-sfakianakis.blogspot.com?w=16&cs=3712665604
16:01

Medicine by Alexandros G. Sfakianakis,Anapafseos 5 Agios Nikolaos 72100 Crete Greece,00306932607174
Stefan Lorenz Sorgner: Transhumanismus – ‘die gefährlichste Idee der Welt!?’
from # All Medicine by Alexandros G. Sfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2sulHuo via IFTTT

medicine-sfakianakis.blogspot.com?w=16&cs=3712665604
16:01

Medicine by Alexandros G. Sfakianakis,Anapafseos 5 Agios Nikolaos 72100 Crete Greece,00306932607174
Being Seen: An Exploration of a Core Phenomenon of Human Existence and Its Normative Dimensions
Abstract This essay explores the nature of being visible and its normative dimensions. In a first part, core traits of an anthropology of visibility are sketched, drawing mainly on Hans Blumenberg’s phenomenological studies. In a second part, human visibility is investigated regarding its implications…

medicine-sfakianakis.blogspot.com?w=16&cs=3712665604
16:01

Medicine by Alexandros G. Sfakianakis,Anapafseos 5 Agios Nikolaos 72100 Crete Greece,00306932607174
Tissue banking, biovigilance and the notify library
Abstract This issue is dedicated to the contributions of Professor Glyn O. Phillips to the field of tissue banking and the advancement of science in general. The use of ionizing radiation to sterilize medical products drew the interest of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). A meeting in 1976…

medicine-sfakianakis.blogspot.com?w=16&cs=3712665604
16:01

Medicine by Alexandros G. Sfakianakis,Anapafseos 5 Agios Nikolaos 72100 Crete Greece,00306932607174
Importante riconoscimento per gli studi sul tumore al seno
Il lavoro, pubblicato su Cellular Oncology, è tra i più importanti del 2016 per "Change the World, One Article at a Time". Tra gli autori anche Anna Villarini e Franco Berrino dell’INT from # All Medicine by Alexandros G. Sfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2sYtJip...

otorhinolaryggologos.blogspot.com?w=16&cs=734127961
15:59

Head and Neck Medicine by Alexandros G.Sfakianakis
Effect of arginine on the growth and biofilm formation of oral bacteria
Publication date: October 2017Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 82 Author(s): Xuelian Huang, Keke Zhang, Meng Deng, Robertus A.M. Exterkate, Chengcheng Liu, Xuedong Zhou, Lei Cheng, Jacob M. ten Cate BackgroundAlkali production via arginine deiminase system (ADS) of oral bacteria plays a significant…

otorhinolaryggologos.blogspot.com?w=16&cs=734127961
15:59

Head and Neck Medicine by Alexandros G.Sfakianakis
Topical application of ointment containing 0.5% green tea catechins suppresses tongue oxidative stress in 5-fluorouracil administered rats
Publication date: October 2017Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 82 Author(s): Hisataka Miyai, Takayuki Maruyama, Takaaki Tomofuji, Toshiki Yoneda, Tetsuji Azuma, Hirofumi Mizuno, Yoshio Sugiura, Terumasa Kobayashi, Daisuke Ekuni, Manabu Morita ObjectiveThe purpose of this study was to investigate…

medicineasfakiakianakis.blogspot.com?w=16&cs=3822443964
15:57

Medicine by Sfakianakis G. Alexandros
Role of cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (cVEMP) and auditory brainstem response (ABR) in the evaluation of vestibular schwannoma
Abstract Introduction: Cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (cVEMP) can assess the integrity of the inferior vestibular nerve thereby promising to be a useful tool in the audiological test battery to diagnose vestibular schwannoma. Objective: To ascertain the utility of cVEMP in diagnosis of…

medsfakianakis.blogspot.com?w=16&cs=3897793244
15:57

Medicine by Sfakianakis Alexandros
A glycomics-based test predicts the development of hepatocellular carcinoma in cirrhosis
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iatriki-sfakianakis.blogspot.com?w=16&cs=815028064
15:57

Medicine by Alexandros G.Sfakianakis,Anapafseos 5 Agios Nikolaos,Crete 72100,Greece,tel :00302841026
Diagnostic value of repeated Dix-Hallpike and roll maneuvers in benign paroxysmal positional vertigo
Abstract Introduction: Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo (BPPV) is the most common peripheral vestibular disorder. The Dix-Hallpike and Roll maneuvers are used to diagnose BPPV. Objective: This study aims to investigate the diagnostic value of repeated Dix-Hallpike and Roll maneuvers in BPPV. Methods:…

iatriki-sfakianakis.blogspot.com?w=16&cs=815028064
15:57

Medicine by Alexandros G.Sfakianakis,Anapafseos 5 Agios Nikolaos,Crete 72100,Greece,tel :00302841026
Correlation of the torsion values measured by rotational profile, kinematics, and CT study in CP patients
Publication date: September 2017Source:Gait & Posture, Volume 57Author(s): Ha Yong Kim, Yong Han Cha, Young Sub Chun, Hyuck Soo ShinBackgroundThe purpose of study was to analyze correlations between bony torsions measured by Staheli’s rotation profile, computed tomography (CT) torsional study, and…

iatriki-sfakianakis.blogspot.com?w=16&cs=815028064
15:57

Medicine by Alexandros G.Sfakianakis,Anapafseos 5 Agios Nikolaos,Crete 72100,Greece,tel :00302841026
Acute otitis media in children: a vaccine-preventable disease?
from #ORL-AlexandrosSfakianakis via ola Kala on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2stEYw8via IFTTT

iatriki-sfakianakis.blogspot.com?w=16&cs=815028064
15:57

Medicine by Alexandros G.Sfakianakis,Anapafseos 5 Agios Nikolaos,Crete 72100,Greece,tel :00302841026
Sound generator associated with the counseling in the treatment of tinnitus: evaluation of the effectiveness
Abstract Introduction: The relations between the tinnitus and the hearing loss are due to the sensory deprivation caused by hearing loss, since this is followed by the functional and structural alteration of the auditory system as a whole. The cochlear lesions are accompanied by a reduction in the activity…

iatriki-sfakianakis.blogspot.com?w=16&cs=815028064
15:57

Medicine by Alexandros G.Sfakianakis,Anapafseos 5 Agios Nikolaos,Crete 72100,Greece,tel :00302841026
Thyroid gland invasion in advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx and hypopharynx,
Abstract Introduction: Squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx and hypopharynx has the potential to invade the thyroid gland. Despite this risk, the proposition of either partial or total thyroidectomy as part of the surgical treatment of all such cases remains controversial. Objectives: To evaluate the…

iatriki-sfakianakis.blogspot.com?w=16&cs=815028064
15:57

Medicine by Alexandros G.Sfakianakis,Anapafseos 5 Agios Nikolaos,Crete 72100,Greece,tel :00302841026
Difficult septal deviation cases: open or closed technique?
Abstract Introduction: The aim of this study is to compare the functional aspects of open technique (OTS) and endonasal septoplasty (ENS) in "difficult septal deviation cases". Methods: 60 patients with severe nasal obstruction from S-shaped deformities, multiple deformities, high deviations etc. were…

Medicine Sfakianakis G. Alexandros

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19h

Excellent Long-Term Prognosis and Favorable Postoperative Nutritional Status After Laparoscopic Pylorus-Preserving Gastrectomy

από Αλέξανδρος Σφακιανάκης στο Medicine Sfakianakis G. Alexandros

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Abstract

Background

Laparoscopic pylorus-preserving gastrectomy (LPPG) has been introduced as a minimally invasive function-preserving operation for early gastric cancer (GC). This study aimed to investigate the surgical and prognostic outcomes after LPPG at the authors’ institution.

Methods

This study analyzed 465 patients who underwent LPPG for cT1 N0 GC located in the middle part of the stomach between 2006 and 2012. Short- and long-term surgical outcomes including 5-year survival rates, postoperative nutritional data, and body weight change were retrospectively investigated.

Results

Regarding short-term surgical results, 14 (3%) of the 465 patients had severe complications classified as Clavien–Dindo grade 3a or above, and no mortality occurred (no in-hospital deaths). The median follow-up period was 1829 days (range 226–3197 days), and the 5-year overall survival and relapse-free survival rates were respectively 98% (95% confidence interval [CI] 96.1–99.0%) and 98% (95% CI 96.1–99.0%). Only two cases of postoperative recurrence were confirmed, and their recurrence sites were not in the remnant stomach or regional lymph nodes. The postoperative nutritional status, in terms of serum total protein, albumin, and hemoglobin levels, was well maintained, and the mean relative body weight (postoperative/preoperative) was 93.24 ± 7.29% after LPPG.

Conclusions

For the first time, we have clarified the detailed long-term survival outcomes of LPPG for cT1 N0 GC. LPPG is an acceptable and favorable operative method for clinically diagnosed early-stage GC, in terms of long-term survival and postoperative nutrition.

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The Impact of Smoking on Sentinel Node Metastasis of Primary Cutaneous Melanoma

από Αλέξανδρος Σφακιανάκης στο Medicine Sfakianakis G. Alexandros

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Abstract

Background

Although a well-established causative relationship exists between smoking and several epithelial cancers, the association of smoking with metastatic progression in melanoma is not well studied. We hypothesized that smokers would be at increased risk for melanoma metastasis as assessed by sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy.

Methods

Data from the first international Multicenter Selective Lymphadenectomy Trial (MSLT-I) and the screening-phase of the second trial (MSLT-II) were analyzed to determine the association of smoking with clinicopathologic variables and SLN metastasis.

Results

Current smoking was strongly associated with SLN metastasis (p = 0.004), even after adjusting for other predictors of metastasis. Among 4231 patients (1025 in MSLT-I and 3206 in MSLT-II), current or former smoking was also independently associated with ulceration (p < 0.001 and p < 0.001, respectively). Compared with current smoking, never smoking was independently associated with decreased Breslow thickness in multivariate analysis (p = 0.002) and with a 0.25 mm predicted decrease in thickness.

Conclusion

The direct correlation between current smoking and SLN metastasis of primary cutaneous melanoma was independent of its correlation with tumor thickness and ulceration. Smoking cessation should be strongly encouraged among patients with or at risk for melanoma.

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Assessment of gender and age effects on serum and hair trace element levels in children with autism spectrum disorder

από Αλέξανδρος Σφακιανάκης στο Medicine Sfakianakis G. Alexandros

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Abstract

The primary objective of the present study was to investigate the levels of essential trace elements in hair and serum in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and investigate the age and gender effects. Children with ASD were characterized by significantly higher levels of copper (Cu) (+8%), iron (Fe) (+5%), and selenium (Se) (+13%) levels in hair and only 8% higher serum Cu levels. After stratification for gender, ASD boys were characterized by significantly increased hair Cu (+ 25%), Fe (+ 25%), and Se (+ 9%) levels, whereas in girls only Se content was elevated (+ 15%). Boys and girls suffering from ASD were characterized by significantly higher serum manganese (Mn) (+20%) and Cu (+18%) as compared to the control values, respectively. In the group of younger children (2–5 years), no significant group difference in hair trace element levels was detected, whereas serum Cu levels were significantly higher (+7%). In turn, the serum concentration of Se in ASD children was 11% lower than that in neurotypical children. In the group of older children with ASD (6–10 years), hair Fe and Se levels were 21% and 16% higher, whereas in serum only Cu levels were increased (+12%) as compared to the controls. Correlation analysis also revealed a different relationship between serum and hair trace element levels with respect to gender and age. Therefore, it is highly recommended to assess several bioindicative matrices for critical evaluation of trace element status in patients with ASD in order to develop adequate personalized nutritional correction.

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SSADH deficiency in an Italian family: a novel ALDH5A1 gene mutation affecting the succinic semialdehyde substrate binding site

από Αλέξανδρος Σφακιανάκης στο Medicine Sfakianakis G. Alexandros

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Abstract

SSADH deficiency (SSADHD) is a rare autosomal recessively inherited metabolic disorder. It is associated with mutations of ALDH5A1 gene, coding for the homotetrameric enzyme SSADH. This enzyme is involved in γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) catabolism, since it oxidizes succinic semialdehyde (SSA) to succinate. Mutations in ALDH5A1 gene result in the abnormal accumulation of γ-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), which is pathognomonic of SSADHD. In the present report, diagnosis of SSADHD in a three-month-old female was achieved by detection of high levels of GHB in urine. Sequence analysis of ALDH5A1 gene showed that the patient was a compound heterozygote for c.1226G > A (p.G409D) and the novel missense mutation, c.1498G > C (p.V500 L). By ALDH5A1 gene expression in transiently transfected HEK293 cells and enzyme activity assays, we demonstrate that the p.V500 L mutation, despite being conservative, produces complete loss of enzyme activity. In silico protein modelling analysis and evaluation of tetramer destabilizing energies suggest that structural impairment and partial occlusion of the access channel to the active site affect enzyme activity. These findings add further knowledge on the missense mutations associated with SSADHD and the molecular mechanisms underlying the loss of the enzyme activity.

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Thyroid

Alexandros Sfakianakis
Anapafseos 5 . Agios Nikolaos
Crete.Greece.72100
2841026182

6948891480
alsfakia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Thyroid
Anterior thyroid.jpgThe human thyroid as viewed from the front, with arteries visible.
Details
Precursor Thyroid diverticulum (an extension of endoderm into 2nd pharyngeal arch)
System Endocrine system
Artery Superior, Inferior thyroid arteries
Vein Superior, middle, Inferior thyroid veins
Identifiers
Latin Glandula thyreoidea
MeSH A06.407.900
Dorlands
/Elsevier
Thyroid gland
TA A11.3.00.001
FMA 9603
Anatomical terminology[edit on Wikidata]

The thyroid gland, or simply the thyroid /ˈθaɪrɔɪd/, is an endocrine gland in the neck, consisting of two lobes connected by an isthmus. It is found at the front of the neck, below the Adam’s apple. The thyroid gland secretes thyroid hormones, which primarily influence the metabolic rate and protein synthesis. The hormones also have many other effects including those on development. The thyroid hormones triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) are created from iodine and tyrosine. The thyroid also produces the hormone calcitonin, which plays a role in calcium homeostasis.[1]

Hormonal output from the thyroid is regulated by thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) secreted from theanterior pituitary gland, which itself is regulated by thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) produced by the hypothalamus.[2]

The thyroid may be affected by several diseases. Hyperthyroidism occurs when the gland produces excessive amounts of thyroid hormones, the most common cause being Graves’ disease — anautoimmune disorder. In contrast, hypothyroidism is a state of insufficient thyroid hormone production. Worldwide, the most common cause is iodine deficiency. Thyroid hormones are important for development, and hypothyroidism secondary to iodine deficiency remains the leading cause of preventable intellectual disability.[3] In iodine-sufficient regions, the most common cause of hypothyroidism is Hashimoto’s thyroiditis—also an autoimmune disease. In addition, the thyroid gland may also develop several types of nodules and cancer.

Contents

[hide]

Structure[edit]

Image showing the thyroid gland surrounding the cricoid cartilage
The thyroid gland surrounds thecricoid and tracheal cartilages, and consists of two lobes. This image shows a variant thyroid with a pyramidal lobe emerging from the middle of the thyroid.

The thyroid gland is a butterfly-shaped organ that sits at the front of the neck. It is composed of two lobes, left and right, connected by a narrow isthmus.[4] The thyroid weighs 25 grams in adults,[4] with each lobe being about 5 cm long, 3 cm wide and 2 cm thick, and the isthmus about 1.25 cm in height and width.[4]The gland is usually larger in women, and increases in size in pregnancy.[4][5]

The thyroid sits near the front of the neck, lying against and around the front of the larynx and trachea.[4]The thyroid cartilage and cricoid cartilage lie just above the gland, below the Adam’s apple. The isthmus extends from the second to third rings of the trachea, with the uppermost part of the lobes extending to the thyroid cartilage, and the lowermost around the fourth to sixth tracheal rings.[6] The thyroid gland is covered by a thin fibrous capsule,[4] which has an inner and an outer layer. The outer layer is continuous with the pretracheal fascia, attaching the gland to the cricoid and thyroid cartilages,[5] via a thickening of the fascia to form the posterior suspensory ligament of thyroid gland also known as Berry’s ligament.[5]This causes the thyroid to move up and down with swallowing.[5] The inner layer extrudes into the gland and forms the septae that divides the thyroid tissue into microscopic lobules.[4] Typically four parathyroid glands, two on each side, lie on each side between the two layers of the capsule, at the back of the thyroid lobes.[4]

The infrahyoid muscles lie in front of the gland and the sternocleidomastoid muscle to the side.[7] Behind the outer wings of the thyroid lie the two carotid arteries. The trachea, laryngx, lower pharynx and esophagus all lie behind the thyroid.[5] In this region, the recurrent laryngeal nerve[8] and the inferior thyroid artery pass next to or in the ligament.[9]

Blood, lymph, and nerve supply[edit]

The thyroid is supplied with arterial blood from the superior thyroid artery, a branch of the external carotid artery, and the inferior thyroid artery, a branch of the thyrocervical trunk, and sometimes by an anatomical variant the thyroid ima artery,[4] which has a variable origin.[10] The superior thyroid artery splits into anterior and posterior branches supplying the thyroid, and the inferior thyroid artery splits into superior and inferior branches.[4] The superior and inferior thyroid arteries join together behind the outer part of the thyroid lobes.[10] The venous blood is drained viasuperior and middle thyroid veins, which drain to the internal jugular vein, and via the inferior thyroid veins. The inferior thyroid veins originate in a network of veins and drain into the left and right brachiocephalic veins.[4] Both arteries and veins form a plexus between the two layers of the capsule of the thyroid gland.[10]

Lymphatic drainage frequently passes the prelaryngeal lymph nodes (located just above the isthmus), and the pretracheal and paratracheal lymph nodes.[4] The gland receives sympathetic nerve supply from the superior, middle and inferior cervical ganglion of the sympathetic trunk.[4] The gland receives parasympathetic nerve supply from the superior laryngeal nerve and the recurrent laryngeal nerve.[4]

Variation[edit]

There are many variants in the size and shape of the thyroid gland, and in the position of the embedded parathyroid glands.[5]

Sometimes there is a third lobe present called the pyramidal lobe.[5] When present, this lobe often stretches up the hyoid bone from the thyroid isthmus and may be one to several divided lobes.[4] The presence of this lobe ranges in reported studies from 18.3%[11] to 44.6%.[12] It was shown to more often arise from the left side and occasionally separated.[11] The pyramidal lobe is also known as Lalouette’s pyramid.[13] The pyramidal lobe is a remnant of the thyroglossal duct which usually wastes away during the thyroid gland’s descent.[5] Small accessory thyroid glands may in fact occur anywhere along the thyroglossal duct, from the foramen cecum of the tongue to the position of the thyroid in the adult.[4] A small horn at the back of the thyroid lobes, usually close to the recurrent laryngeal nerve and the inferior thyroid artery, is called Zuckerkandl’s tubercle.[9]

Other variants include a levator muscle of thyroid gland, connecting the isthmus to the body of the hyoid bone,[5] and the presence of the smallthyroid ima artery.[5]

Microanatomy[edit]


Section of a thyroid gland under the microscope. 1 follicles, 2 follicular cells, 3 endothelial cells

At the microscopic level, there are three primary features of the thyroid—follicles, follicular cells, andparafollicular cells, first discovered by Geoffery Websterson in 1664.[14]

Follicles

Thyroid follicles are small spherical groupings of cells 0.02–0.9mm in diameter that play the main role in thyroid function.[4] They consist of a rim that has a rich blood supply, nerve and lymphatic presence, that surrounds a core of colloid that consists mostly of thyroid hormone precursor proteins called thyroglobulin, an iodinated glycoprotein.[4][15]

Follicular cells

The core of a follicle is surrounded by a single layer of follicular cells. When stimulated by thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), these secrete the thyroid hormones T3 and T4. They do this by transporting and metabolising the thyroglobulin contained in the colloid.[4] Follicular cells vary in shape from flat to cuboid to columnar, depending on how active they are.[4][15]

Parafollicular cells

Scattered among follicular cells and in spaces between the spherical follicles are another type of thyroid cell, parafollicular cells.[4] These cells secrete calcitonin and so are also called C cells.[16]

Development[edit]


Floor of pharynx of embryo between 18 and 21 days

In the development of the embryo, at 3–4 weeks gestational age, the thyroid gland appears as an epithelialproliferation in the floor of the pharynx at the base of the tongue between the tuberculum impar and thecopula linguae. The copula soon becomes covered over by the hypopharyngeal eminence [17] at a point later indicated by the foramen cecum. The thyroid then descends in front of the pharyngeal gut as a bilobed diverticulum through the thyroglossal duct. Over the next few weeks, it migrates to the base of the neck, passing in front of the hyoid bone. During migration, the thyroid remains connected to the tongue by a narrow canal, the thyroglossal duct. At the end of the fifth week the thyroglossal duct degenerates and the detached thyroid continues on to its final position over the following two weeks.[17]

The fetal hypothalamus and pituitary start to secrete thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). TSH is first measurable at 11 weeks.[18] By 18–20 weeks, the production ofthyroxine (T4) reaches a clinically significant and self-sufficient level.[18][19] Fetal triiodothyronine (T3) remains low, less than 15 ng/dL until 30 weeks, and increases to 50 ng/dL at full-term.[19] The fetus needs to be self-sufficient in thyroid hormones in order to guard against neurodevelopmental disorders that would arise from maternal hypothyroidism.[20]The presence of sufficient iodine is essential for healthy neurodevelopment.[21]

The neuroendocrine parafollicular cells, also known as C cells, responsible for the production of calcitonin, are derived from neural crest cells, which migrate to the pharyngeal arches. This part of the thyroid then first forms as the ultimopharyngeal body, which begins in the ventral fourthpharyngeal pouch and joins the primordial thyroid gland during its descent to its final location.[22]

Aberrations in prenatal development can result in various forms of thyroid dysgenesis which can cause congenital hypothyroidism, and if untreated this can lead to cretinism.[18]

Function[edit]

Diagram explaining the relationship between the thyroid hormones T3 and T4, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), and thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH)
The thyroid hormones T3 and T4 have a number of metabolic, cardiovascular and developmental effects on the body. The production is stimulated by release of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), which in turn depends on release of thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH). Every downstream hormone has negative feedback and decreases the level of the hormone that stimulates its release.

Thyroid hormones[edit]

Main article: Thyroid hormones

The primary function of the thyroid is the production of the iodine-containing thyroid hormones, triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) and the peptide hormone calcitonin.[23] T3is so named because it contains three atoms of iodine per molecule and T4 contains four atoms of iodine per molecule.[24] The thyroid hormones have a wide range of effects on the human body. These include:

  • Metabolic. The thyroid hormones increase the basal metabolic rate and have effects on almost all body tissues.[25] Appetite, the absorption of substances, and gut motility are all influenced by thyroid hormones.[26] They increase the absorption in the gut, generation,uptake by cells, and breakdown of glucose.[27] They stimulate the breakdown of fats, and increase the number of free fatty acids.[27] Despite increasing free fatty acids, thyroid hormones decrease cholesterol levels, perhaps by increasing the rate of secretion of cholesterol in bile.[27]
  • Cardiovascular. The hormones increase the rate and strength of the heartbeat. They increase the rate of breathing, intake and consumption of oxygen, and increase the activity of mitochondria.[26] Combined, these factors increase blood flow and the body’s temperature.[26]
  • Developmental. Thyroid hormones are important for normal development.[27] They increase the growth rate of young people,[28] and cells of the developing brain are a major target for the thyroid hormones T3 and T4. Thyroid hormones play a particularly crucial role in brain maturation during fetal development.[27]
  • The thyroid hormones also play a role in maintaining normal sexual function, sleep, and thought patterns. Increased levels are associated with increased speed of thought generation but decreased focus.[26] Sexual function, including libido and the maintenance of a normal menstrual cycle, are influenced by thyroid hormones.[26]

After secretion, only a very small proportion of the thyroid hormones travel freely in the blood. Most are bound to thyroxine-binding globulin (about 70%), transthyretin (10%), and albumin (15%).[29] Only the 0.03% of T4 and 0.3% of T3 traveling freely has hormonal activity.[30] In addition, up to 85% of the T3 in blood is produced following conversion from T4 by iodothyronine deiodinases in organs around the body.[23]

Thyroid hormones act by crossing the cell membrane and binding to intracellular nuclear thyroid hormone receptors TR-α1,TR-α2,TR-β1 and TR-β2, which bind with hormone response elements and transcription factors to modulate DNA transcription.[30][31] In addition to these actions on DNA, the thyroid hormones also act within the cell membrane or within cytoplasm via reactions with enzymes, including calcium ATPase, adenylyl cyclase, and glucose transporters.[18]

Hormone production[edit]


Synthesis of the thyroid hormones, as seen on an individual thyroid follicular cell:[32]
Thyroglobulin is synthesized in the rough endoplasmic reticulum and follows the secretory pathway to enter the colloid in the lumen of thethyroid follicle by exocytosis.
– Meanwhile, a sodium-iodide (Na/I) symporter pumps iodide (I−) activelyinto the cell, which previously has crossed the endothelium by largely unknown mechanisms.
– This iodide enters the follicular lumen from the cytoplasm by the transporter pendrin, in a purportedly passive manner.[33]
– In the colloid, iodide (I−) is oxidized to iodine (I0) by an enzyme calledthyroid peroxidase.
– Iodine (I0) is very reactive and iodinates the thyroglobulin at tyrosylresidues in its protein chain (in total containing approximately 120 tyrosyl residues).
– In conjugation, adjacent tyrosyl residues are paired together.
– The entire complex re-enters the follicular cell by endocytosis.
Proteolysis by various proteases liberates thyroxine andtriiodothyronine molecules, which enters the blood by largely unknown mechanisms.

The thyroid hormones are created from thyroglobulin. This is a protein within the follicular space that is originally created within the rough endoplasmic reticulum of follicular cells and then transported into the follicular space. Thyroglobulin contains 123 units of tyrosine, which reacts with iodine within the follicular space.[34]

Iodine is essential for the production of the thyroid hormones. Iodine (I0) travels in the blood as iodide (I−), which is taken up into the follicular cells by asodium-iodide symporter. This is an ion channel on the cell membrane which in the same action transports two sodium ions and an iodide ion into the cell.[35] Iodide then travels from within the cell into the follicular space, through the action of pendrin, an iodide-chloride antiporter. In the follicular space, the iodide is then oxidized to iodine. This makes it more reactive,[32] and the iodine is attached to the active tyrosine units in thyroglobulin by the enzyme thyroid peroxidase. This forms the precursors of thyroid hormones monoiodotyrosine(MIT), and diiodotyrosine (DIT).[2]

When the follicular cells are stimulated by thyroid-stimulating hormone, the follicular cells reabsorb thyroglobulin from the follicular space. The iodinated tyrosines are cleaved, forming the thyroid hormones T4, T3, DIT, MIT, and traces of reverse triiodothyronine. T3 and T4 are released into the blood. The hormones secreted from the gland are about 80–90% T4 and about 10–20% T3.[36][37]Deiodinase enzymes in peripheral tissues remove the iodine from MIT and DIT and convert T4 to T3 and RT3.[34] This is a major source of both RT3 (95%) and T3 (87%) in peripheral tissues.[38]

Regulation[edit]

The production of thyroxine and triiodothyronine is primarily regulated by thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), released by the anterior pituitary gland. TSH release in turn is stimulated by thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH), released in a pulsatile manner from the hypothalamus.[39] The thyroid hormones provide negative feedback to the thyrotropes TSH and TRH: when the thyroid hormones are high, TSH production is suppressed. This negative feedback also occurs when levels of TSH are high, causing TRH production to be suppressed.[40]

TRH is secreted at an increased rate in situations such as cold exposure in order to stimulate thermogenesis.[41] In addition to being suppressed by the presence of thyroid hormones, TSH production is blunted by dopamine, somatostatin, and glucocorticoids.[42]

Calcitonin[edit]

Main article: Calcitonin

The thyroid gland also produces the hormone calcitonin, which helps regulate blood calcium levels. Parafollicular cells produce calcitonin in response to high blood calcium. Calcitonin decreases the release of calcium from bone, by decreasing the activity of osteoclasts, cells which break down bone. Bone is constantly reabsorbed by osteoclasts and created by osteoblasts, so calcitonin effectively stimulates movement of calcium intobone. The effects of calcitonin are opposite those of the parathyroid hormone, produced in the parathyroid glands. However, calcitonin seems far less essential than PTH, as calcium metabolism remains clinically normal after removal of the thyroid (thyroidectomy), but not the parathyroid glands.[43]

Clinical significance[edit]

Symptoms[edit]

Hyperthyroidism[edit]

Main article: Hyperthyroidism

Excessive production of the thyroid hormones is called hyperthyroidism, which is most commonly a result of Graves’ disease, a toxic multinodular goitre, a solitary thyroid adenoma, or inflammation. Other causes include drug-induced excess of iodine, particularly from amiodarone, anantiarrhythmic medication; an excess caused by the preferential uptake of iodine by the thyroid following iodinated contrast imaging; or frompituitary adenomas which may cause an overproduction of thyroid stimulating hormone.[44] Hyperthyroidism often causes a variety of non-specific symptoms including weight loss, increased appetite, insomnia, decreased tolerance of heat, tremor, palpitations, anxiety and nervousness. In some cases it can cause chest pain, diarrhoea, hair loss and muscle weakness.[45] Such symptoms may be managed temporarily with drugs such as beta blockers.[46]

Long-term management of hyperthyroidism may include drugs that suppress thyroid function such as propylthiouracil, carbimazole andmethimazole.[47]Radioactive iodine-131 can be used to destroy thyroid tissue. Radioactive iodine is selectively taken up by the thyroid, which over time destroys the cells involved in its uptake. The chosen first-line treatment will depend on the individual and on the country where being treated.Surgery to remove the thyroid can sometimes be performed as a transoral thyroidectomy, a minimally-invasive procedure.[48] Surgery does however carry a risk of damage to the parathyroid glands and the nerves controlling the vocal cords. If the entire thyroid gland is removed, hypothyroidism will naturally result, and thyroid hormone substitutes will be needed.[49][46]

Hypothyroidism[edit]

Main article: Hypothyroidism

An underactive thyroid gland results in hypothyroidism. Typical symptoms are abnormal weight gain, tiredness, constipation, heavy menstrual bleeding, hair loss, cold intolerance, and a slow heart rate.[45]Iodine deficiency is the most common cause of hypothyroidism worldwide,[50] and the autoimmune disease Hashimoto’s thyroiditis is the most common cause in the developed world.[51] Other causes include congenital abnormalities, diseases causing transient inflammation, surgical removal or radioablation of the thyroid, the drugs amiodarone and lithium, amyloidosis, andsarcoidosis.[52] Some forms of hypothyroidism can result in myxedema and severe cases can result in myxedema coma.[53]

Hypothyroidism is managed with replacement of the hormone thyroxine. This is usually given daily as an oral supplement, and may take a few weeks to become effective.[53] Some causes of hypothyroidism, such as Postpartum thyroiditis and Subacute thyroiditis may be transient and pass over time, and other causes such as iodine deficiency may be able to be rectified with dietary supplementation.[54]

Nodules[edit]

Main article: Thyroid nodule

Thyroid nodules are often found on the gland, with a prevalence of 4–7%.[55] The majority of nodules do not cause any symptoms and are non-cancerous.[56] Non-cancerous cases include simple cysts, colloid nodules, and thyroid adenomas. Malignant nodules, which only occur in about 5% of nodules, include follicular, papillary, medullary carcinomas and metastases from other sites [57] Nodules are more likely in females, those who are exposed to radiation, and in those who are iodine deficient.[55]

When a nodule is present, thyroid function tests are performed and reveal whether a person has a normal amount of thyroid hormones ("euthyroid") or an excess of hormones, usually secreted by the nodule, causing hyperthyroidism.[56] When the thyroid function tests are normal, an ultrasound is often used to investigate the nodule, and provide information such as whether the nodule is fluid-filled or a solid mass, and whether the appearance is suggestive of a benign or malignant cancer.[55] A needle aspiration biopsy may then be performed, and the sample undergoes cytology, in which the appearance of cells is viewed to determine whether they resemble normal or cancerous cells.[57]

There can be many nodules, which is termed a multinodular goitre, and this can sometimes be a toxic multinodular goitre.[57]

Swelling[edit]

Main article: Goitre

An enlarged thyroid gland is called a goitre.[58] Goitres are present in some form in about 5% of people,[57] and are the result of a large number of causes, including iodine deficiency, autoimmune disease (both Grave’s disease and Hashimoto’s thyroiditis), infection, inflammation, and infltrative disease such as sarcoidosis and amyloidosis. Sometimes no cause can be found, a state called "simple goitre".[59]

Some forms of goitre are associated with pain, whereas many do not cause any symptoms. Enlarged goitres may extend beyond the normal position of the thyroid gland to below the sternum, around the airway or esophagus.[57] Goitres may be associated with hyperthyoidism or hypothyroidism, relating to the underlying cause of the goitre.[57] Thyroid function tests may be done to investigate the cause and effects of the goitre. The underlying cause of the goitre may be treated, however many goitres with no associated symptoms are simply monitored.[57]

Disease[edit]

Main article: Thyroid disease

Disorders of the thyroid are functional–caused by dysfunction in the production of hormones, and nodes and tumors either benign or malignant. Functional disorders can cause inflammation as can some other forms of thyroiditis. Functional disorders can result in the overproduction or underproduction of hormones. Any of the functional thyroid disorders can result in the gland’s enlargement and cause a swollen neck termed a goitre.

Inflammation[edit]

Main article: Thyroiditis

Inflammation of the thyroid is called thyroiditis. Inflammed thyroids may cause symptoms of hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism. Two types thyroiditis initially present with hyperthyroidism and are sometimes followed by a period of hypothyroidism – Hashimoto’s thyroiditis and postpartum thyroiditis. There are other disorders that cause inflammation of the thyroid, and these include subacute thyroiditis, acute thyroiditis, silent thyroiditis, Riedel’s thyroiditis and traumatic injury, including palpation thyroiditis.[60]

Hashimoto’s thyroiditis is an autoimmune disorder in which the thyroid gland is infltrated by the lymphocytes B-cell and T-cells. These progressively destroy the thyroid gland.[61] In this way, Hasimoto’s thyroiditis may have occurred insidiously, and only be noticed when thyroid hormone production decreases, causing symptoms of hypothyroidism.[61] Hashimoto’s is more common in females than males, much more common after the age of 60, and has known genetic risk factors.[61] Also more common in individuals with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis are type 1 diabetes, pernicious anaemia, Addison’s disease vitiligo.[61]

Postpartum thyroiditis occurs in some females following childbirth. After delivery, the gland becomes inflamed and the condition initially presents with a period of hyperthyroidism followed by hypothyroidism and, usually, a return to normal function. [62] The course of the illness takes place over several months, and is characterised by a painless goitre. Antibodies against thyroid peroxidase can be found on testing. The inflammation usually resolves without treatment, although thyroid hormone replacement may be needed during the period of hypothyroidism.[62]

Cancer[edit]

Main article: Thyroid cancer

The most common neoplasm affecting the thyroid gland is a benign adenoma, usually presenting as a painless mass in the neck.[63] Malignant thyroid cancers are most often carcinomas, although cancer can occur in any tissue that the thyroid consists of, including cancer of C-cells and lymphomas. Cancers from other sites also rarely lodge in the thyroid.[63] Radiation of the head and neck presents a risk factor for thyroid cancer, and cancer is more common in women than men, occurring at a rate of about 2:1.[63]

In most cases, thyroid cancer presents as a painless mass in the neck. It is very unusual for thyroid cancers to present with other symptoms, although in some cases cancer may cause hyperthyroidism.[64] Most malignant thyroid cancers are papillary, followed by follicular, medullary, andthyroid lymphoma.[63][64] Because of the prominence of the thyroid gland, cancer is often detected earlier in the course of disease as the cause of a nodule, which may undergo fine needle aspiration. Thyroid function tests will help reveal whether the nodule produces excess thyroid hormones. A radioactive iodine uptake test can help reveal the activity and location of the cancer and metastases.[63][65]

Thyroid cancers are treated by removing the whole or part of thyroid gland. Radioactive Iodine 131 may be given to radioablate the thyroid.Thyroxine is given to replace the hormones lost and to suppress TSH production, as TSH may stimulate recurrence.[65] With the exception of the rare anaplastic thyroid cancer, which carries a very poor prognosis, most thyroid cancers carry an excellent prognosis and can even be considered curable.[66]

Congenital[edit]

A persistent thyroglossal duct is the most common clinically significant congenital disorder of the thyroid gland. A persistent sinus tract may remain as a vestigial remnant of the tubular development of the thyroid gland. Parts of this tube may be obliterated, leaving small segments to formthyroglossal cysts.[22] Preterm neonates are at risk of hypothyroidism as their thyroid glands are insufficiently developed to meet their postnatal needs.[67] In order to detect hypothyroidism in newborn babies, to prevent growth and development abnormalities in later life, many countries havenewborn screening programs at birth.[68]

Infants with thyroid hormone deficiency (congenital hypothyroidism) can manifest problems of physical growth and development as well as brain development, termed cretinism.[69][21] Children with congenital hypothyroidism are treated supplementally with levothyroxine, which facilitates normal growth and development.[70]

Mucinous, clear secretions may collect within these cysts to form either spherical masses or fusiform swellings, rarely larger than 2 to 3 cm in diameter. These are present in the midline of the neck anterior to the trachea. Segments of the duct and cysts that occur high in the neck are lined by stratified squamous epithelium, which is essentially identical to that covering the posterior portion of the tongue in the region of the foramen cecum. The disorders that occur in the lower neck more proximal to the thyroid gland are lined by epithelium resembling the thyroidal acinar epithelium. Characteristically, next to the lining epithelium, there is an intense lymphocytic infiltrate. Superimposed infection may convert these lesions into abscess cavities, and rarely, give rise to cancers.[citation needed]

Another disorder is that of thyroid dysgenesis which can result in various presentations of one or more misplaced accessory thyroid glands.[4]These can be asymptomatic.

Iodine[edit]


Child affected by cretinism, associated with a lack of iodine.[71]

Iodine deficiency, most common in inland and mountainous areas, can predispose to goitre – if widespread, known as endemic goitre.[69] Pregnant women deficient of iodine can give birth to infants with thyroid hormone deficiency.[69][21] The use of iodised salt used to add iodine to the diet[21] has eliminated endemic cretinism in most developed countries,[72] and over 120 countries have made the iodination of saltmandatory.[73]

Because the thyroid concentrates iodine, it also concentrates the various radioactive isotopes of iodine produced by nuclear fission. In the event of large accidental releases of such material into the environment, the uptake of radioactive iodine isotopes by the thyroid can, in theory, be blocked by saturating the uptake mechanism with a large surplus of non-radioactive iodine, taken in the form of potassium iodide tablets. One consequence of the Chernobyl disaster was an increase in thyroid cancersin children in the years following the accident.[74]

As with most substances, either too much or too little can cause problems. Recent studies on some populations are showing that excess iodine intake could cause an increased prevalence of autoimmune thyroid disease, resulting in permanent hypothyroidism.[75]

Graves’ disease[edit]

Main article: Graves’ disease

Graves’ disease is an autoimmune disorder that is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism.[76] In Graves’ disease, for an unknown reason autoantibodies develop against the thyroid stimulating hormone receptor. These antibodies activate the receptor, leading to development of a goitre and symptoms of hyperthyroidism, such as heat intolerance, weight loss, diarrhoea and palpitations. Occasionally such antibodies block but do not activate the receptor, leading to symptoms associated with hypothyroidism.[76] In addition, gradual protrusion of the eyes may occur, calledGraves’ ophthalmopathy, as may swelling of the front of the shins.[76] Graves’ disease can be diagnosed by the presence of pathomnomonicfeatures such as involvement of the eyes and shins, or isolation of autoantibodies, or by results of a radiolabelled uptake scan. Graves’ disease is treated with anti-thyroid drugs such as propylthiouracil, which decrease the production of thyroid hormones, but hold a high rate of relapse. If there is no involvement of the eyes, then use of radioactive isotopes to ablate the gland may be considered. Surgical removal of the gland with subsequent thyroid hormone replacement may be considered, however this will not control symptoms associated with the eye or skin.[76]

Examination[edit]

Physicians who specialise in the treatment of thyroid disorders are known generally as endocrinologists, thyroid specialists or thyroidologists. Thyroid surgeon or otolaryngologistss may play a role in the surgical management of thyroid disease and general practitioners and family physicians may play a role in monitoring for and identifying symptoms related to thyroid disease.

The thyroid itself is examined by observation of the gland and surrounding neck for swelling or enlargement.[77] It is then felt, usually from behind, and a person is often asked to swallow to better feel the gland against the fingers of the examiner.[77] The gland moves up and down with swallowing because of its attachments to the thyroid and cricoid cartilages.[5] In a healthy person the gland is not visible yet is palpable as a soft mass. Examination of the thyroid gland includes the search for abnormal masses and the assessment of overall thyroid size.[78] The character of the thyroid, swellings, nodules, and their consistency may all be able to be felt. If a goitre is present, an examiner may also feel down the neck consider tapping the upper part of the chest to check for extension. Further tests may include raising the arms (Pemberton’s sign), listening to the gland with a stethoscope for bruits, testing of reflexes, and palpation of the lymph nodes in the head and neck. A medical examination of the thyroid will also include observation of the person as a whole, to look for systemic signs such as weight gain or loss, hair loss, and signs in other locations – such as protrusion of the eyes or swelling of the calves in Grave’s disease.[79][77]

Tests[edit]

A number of tests that can be used to test the function of the thyroid, for the presence of diseases, and for the success or failure of treatment. Blood tests in general aim to measure thyroid function or determine the cause of thyroid dysfunction. Thyroid function tests include a battery of blood tests including the measurement of the thyroid hormones T3 and T4, as well as the measurement of TSH.[80] They may reveal hyperthyroidism (high T3 and T4), hypothyroidism (low T3, T4), or subclinical hyperthyroidism (normal T3 and T4 with a low TSH).[80]

TSH levels are considered the most sensitive marker of thyroid dysfunction.[80] They are however not always accurate, particularly if the cause of hypothyroidism is thought to be related to insufficient TRH secretion, in which case it may be low or falsely normal. In such a case a TRH stimulation test, in which TRH is given and TSH levels are measured at 30 and 60-minutes after, may be conducted.[80]

T3 and T4 can be measured directly. However, as the two thyroid hormones travel bound to other molecules, and it is the "free" component that is biologically active, free T3 and free T4 levels can be measured.[80] T4 is preferred, because in hypothyroidism T3 levels may be normal.[80] The ratio of bound to unbound thyroid hormones is known as the thyroid hormone binding ratio (THBR).[81] It is also possible to measure directly the main carriers of the thyroid hormones, thryoglobulin and throxine-binding globulin.[82] Thyroglobulin will also be measurable in a healthy thyroid, and will increase with inflammation, and may also be used to measure the success of thyroid removal or ablation. If successful, thyroglobulin should be undetectable.[81] Lastly, antibodies against components of the thyroid, particularly anti-TPO and anti-thyroglobulin, can be measured. These may be present in normal individuals but are highly sensitive for autoimmune-related disease.[81]

Ultrasound of the thyroid may be used to reveal whether structures are solid or filled with fluid, helping to differentiate between nodules and goitres and cysts. It may also help differentiate between malignant and benign lesions.[83] A fine needle aspiration biopsy may be taken concurrently of thyroid tissue to determine the nature of a lesion. These biopsies are then sent for histopathology and cytology.[84] When further imaging is required, a radiolabelled iodine-123 or technetium-99 uptake scan may take place. This can determine the size and shape of lesions, reveal whether nodules or goitres are metabolically active, and reveal and monitor sites of thyroid disease or cancer deposits outside the thyroid.[85]

History[edit]


The thyroid was named by Thomas Wharton after the ancient Greek shield of a similar pronunciation. Shown is an example, as engraved on an oboldating from 431–424 BCE.

The presence and diseases of the thyroid have been noted and treated for thousands of years, although the gland itself has only been described and named since the renaissance.[86] The first recorded mention of the thyroid is in terms of goitre in Chinese texts circa 2700 BCE, of which there is general agreement.[86][87] In 1600 BCE burnt sponge and seaweed were used within China for the treatment of goitres, a practice which has developed in many parts of the world.[86][87] In Ayurvedic medicine, the bookSushruta Samhita written about 1400 BCE describes hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism and goitre.[87]Aristotle and Xenophon in the fifth century BCE describe cases of Grave’s disease, which receives its name over two millennia later owing to descriptions provided by Robert James Graves in 1834,[87]Hippocrates and Plato in the fourth century BCE provided some of the first descriptions of the gland itself, proposing its function as a salivary gland.[87]Pliny the Elder in the first century BCE referred to epidemics of goitre in the Alps and proposed treatment with burnt seaweed,[86] a practice also referred to by Galen in the second century, referred to burnt sponge for the treatment of goitre.[86]

In 1500 polymath Leonardo da Vinci provides the first illustration of the thyroid.[86] In 1543 Anatomist Andreas Vesalius gave the first anatomic description and illustration of the gland.[86] In 1656 the thyroid received its name, by the anatomist Thomas Wharton.[86] The gland was named thyroid, meaning shield, as its shape resembled the shields commonly used in Ancient Greece.[86] The English name thyroid gland[88] is derived from the medical Latin used by Wharton – glandula thyreoidea.[89]Glandula means gland in Latin,[90] and thyreoidea can be traced back to theAncient Greek word θυρεοειδής, meaning shield-like/shield-shaped.[91]

French chemist Bernard Courtois discovered Iodine in 1811,[87] and in 1896 Eugen Baumann documented it as the central ingredient in the thryoid gland. He did this by boiling the thyroid glands of a thousand sheep, and named the precipitate, a combination of the thyroid hormones, ‘iodothyrin’.[87]David Marine in 1907 provided iodine is necessary for thyroid function.[87][86] Thyroxine itself was first isolated in 1914 and synthesized in 1927, and trirodothyroxine in 1952.[87][92] The conversion of T4 to T3 was discovered in 1970.[86] The process of discovering TSH took place over the early to mid twentieth century.[93] TRH was discovered by Polish endocrinologist Andrew Schally in 1970, contributing in part to his Nobel Prize in Medicine in 1977.[86][94]

Either Aetius in the sixth century CE[87] or Persian Ali ibn Abbas al-Magusi in 990 CE conducted the first recorded thyroidectomy as a treatment for goitre.[86][95] Operations remained risky and generally were not successful until the 19th century, when descriptions emerged from a number of authors including Prussian surgeon Theodor Billroth, Swiss surgeon and physiologist Theodor Kocher, American physician Charles Mayo, William Halsted and George Crile. These descriptions provided the basis for modern thyroid surgery.[96]Theodor Kocher went on to win the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1909 "for his work on the physiology, pathology and surgery of the thyroid gland".[97]

Numerous authors described cretinism, myxoedema their relationship with the thyroid in the nineteenth century.[87] Charles Mayo coined the term hyperthyroidism in 1910,[86]Hakaru Hashimoto documented a case of Hashimoto’s thyroiditis in 1912, and autoantibodies were demonstrated in 1956.[87] Knowledge of the thyroid and its conditions developed throughout the late nineteenth and twentieth centuries, with many modern treatments and investigative modalities evolving throughout the mid twentieth century, including the use of radioactive iodine, thiouracil and fine needle aspiration.[86]

Other animals[edit]


Goat affected by a goitre

The thyroid gland is found in all vertebrates. In fish, it is usually located below the gills and is not always divided into distinct lobes. However, in some teleosts, patches of thyroid tissue are found elsewhere in the body, associated with the kidneys, spleen, heart, or eyes.[98]

In tetrapods, the thyroid is always found somewhere in the neck region. In most tetrapod species, there are two paired thyroid glands – that is, the right and left lobes are not joined together. However, there is only ever a single thyroid gland in most mammals, and the shape found in humans is common to many other species.[98]

In larval lampreys, the thyroid originates as an exocrine gland, secreting its hormones into the gut, and associated with the larva’s filter-feeding apparatus. In the adult lamprey, the gland separates from the gut, and becomes endocrine, but this path of development may reflect the evolutionary origin of the thyroid. For instance, the closest living relatives of vertebrates, the tunicates and Amphioxus, have a structure very similar to that of larval lampreys (the endostyle), and this also secretes iodine-containing compounds (albeit not thyroxine).[98]

Thyroxine is critical to the regulation of metabolism and growth throughout the animal kingdom. For example, Iodine and T4 trigger the changefrom a plant-eating water-dwelling tadpole into a meat-eating land-dwelling frog, with better neurological, visuospatial, smell and cognitive abilities for hunting, as seen in other predatory animals. A similar phenomenon happens in the neotenic amphibian salamanders, which, without introducing iodine, don’t transform into land-dwelling adults, and live and reproduce in the larval form of aquatic axolotl. Among amphibians, administering a thyroid-blocking agent such as propylthiouracil (PTU) can prevent tadpoles from metamorphosing into frogs; in contrast, administering thyroxine will trigger metamorphosis. In amphibian metamorphosis, thyroxine and iodine also exert a well-studied experimental model of apoptosis on the cells of gills, tail, and fins of tadpoles. Iodine, via iodolipids, has favored the evolution of terrestrial animal species and has likely played a crucial role in the evolution of the human brain.[99][100]

See also[edit]

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Books[edit]

  • Shoback, edited by David G. Gardner, Dolores (2011). Greenspan’s basic & clinical endocrinology (9th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill Medical.ISBN 978-0-07-162243-1.
  • Hall, John (2011). Guyton and Hall textbook of medical physiology (12th ed.). Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders/Elsevier. ISBN 978-1-4160-4574-8.
  • Longo, Dan; Fauci, Anthony; Kasper, Dennis; Hauser, Stephen; Jameson, J.; Loscalzo, Joseph (August 11, 2011). Harrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine (18 ed.). McGraw-Hill Professional. ISBN 978-0-07-174889-6.
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External links[edit]

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Alexandros Sfakianakis
Anapafseos 5 . Agios Nikolaos
Crete.Greece.72100
2841026182

6948891480
alsfakia

Santorini Greek Islands

Medicine by Alexandros G. Sfakianakis,
Anapafseos 5
Agios Nikolaos 72100 Crete Greece,
00306932607174,00302841026182,
alsfakia