Endotoxin Exposure Increases LL-37 – but Not Calprotectin – in Healthy Human Airways

Rationale: The antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) LL-37 and calprotectin are important players in the innate immunity of human airways. In patients with diseases characterized by bacterial colonization, the airway concentrations of these AMPs are increased. Less is known about their presence and release patterns in healthy humans. Our aim was to determine whether LL-37 and calprotectin are released after the activation of the innate immune response in the peripheral airways. Methods: Healthy volunteers underwent exposure to endotoxin and vehicle in contralateral segment bronchi. After 12 or 24 h, samples of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALf) were collected bilaterally from exposed segments. Cell and AMP concentrations were assessed, as were the pro-form and active form of LL-37. Results: Both LL-37 and calprotectin were detected in cell-free BALf from both endotoxin- and vehicle-exposed segments. The concentrations of precursor and active LL-37 and neutrophils were significantly higher in endotoxin-exposed segments after 12 and 24 h, and the concentrations of LL-37 and neutrophils correlated positively. The concentrations of calprotectin were not markedly affected by exposure to endotoxin. Conclusions: Local endotoxin exposure elicits the release and activation of LL-37 but not calprotectin in healthy human peripheral airways, suggesting an inducible involvement of LL-37 in the local innate immune response.
J Innate Immun

from #Medicine-SfakianakisAlexandros via o.lakala70 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2skaNMg
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