Factors Determining the Outcome in Trigeminal Neuralgia Treated With Percutaneous Balloon Compression

Publication date: November 2017
Source:World Neurosurgery, Volume 107
Author(s): Tugrul Cem Unal, Omer Faruk Unal, Orhan Barlas, Kemal Hepgul, Achmet Ali, Aydin Aydoseli, Yavuz Aras, Pulat Akin Sabanci, Altay Sencer, Nail Izgi
ObjectiveTo analyze 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings and clinical features of patients with trigeminal neuralgia (TN) who underwent percutaneous balloon compression and to determine whether these findings had an impact on prognosis of TN.MethodsA retrospective review of patients with TN who underwent percutaneous balloon compression in the Neurosurgery Department at Istanbul Faculty of Medicine between January 1, 2007, and January 1, 2016, was undertaken. Of 105 patients who underwent percutaneous balloon compression, 27 patients who received surgical treatment for the first time for typical TN were included in the study. Follow-up data, clinical features, and 3T MRI findings were analyzed retrospectively. MRI findings and clinical features of patients with and without recurrence of TN were compared. The correlation between fractional anisotropy (FA) values and recurrence was investigated.ResultsDuring follow-up, 9 (33%) patients had recurrence. The patients with recurrence had longer duration of symptoms (P = 0.032), higher FA difference (P = 0.042), and higher FA difference rate (P = 0.023). A trend toward early recurrence was found in patients with higher FA difference rate, although this was not significant (P = 0.051, R = 0.319).ConclusionsSymptom duration was longer and microstructural changes were more apparent in patients with recurrence. In addition to age, comorbidities, and other clinical and radiographic features, symptom duration and FA values obtained with 3T MRI might be valuable information in surgical decision making.

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Kinase Activity in Recurring Primary Skull Base Chordomas and Chondrosarcomas: Identification of Novel Pathways of Oncogenesis and Potential Drug Targets

Publication date: November 2017
Source:World Neurosurgery, Volume 107
Author(s): Philip D. Tatman, Joshua Osbun, Youssef Yakkioui, Sumanpret Kaur, Carolina Parada, Tina Busald, Donald Born, Owais Ahmad, Jing Zhang, Manuel Ferreira
BackgroundChordomas and chondrosarcomas can occur in the skull base. Currently, 45% of chordomas and 56% of chondrosarcomas recur within 5 years of surgery. The role of adjuvant therapy is highly debated. No pharmacotherapies have been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for chordomas or chondrosarcomas. High propensity for recurrence and lack of definitive adjuvant therapy necessitate additional basic science research to identify molecular anomalies associated with recurrent disease.MethodsWe pooled tumor lysates from patients based on clinical criteria into 4 groups: primary chordomas, primary chordomas that recurred, primary chondrosarcomas, and primary chondrosarcomas that recurred. We used a peptide labeling method, isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation, to uniquely identify each tumor group. Phosphorylated peptides were identified and quantified via mass spectroscopy to determine and predict active kinases.ResultsSix groups of phosphorylated peptides were associated with primary tumors that later recurred. Specific kinases associated with primary chordomas that recurred were FES and FER. Specific kinases associated with primary chondrosarcomas that recurred were FES, FER, SRC family kinases, PKC, ROCK, and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling (JNK, ERK1, p38).ConclusionsThese data provide clinicians with a means to screen skull base chordomas and chondrosarcomas to help identify tumors with a propensity to recur. Many of these kinases can be efficaciously inhibited by Food and Drug Administration–approved drugs that have not yet been used in clinical trials for treatment of skull base chordomas or chondrosarcomas. Validation of kinases identified in this study may advance treatment options for patients with these tumors.

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Multicenter Retrospective Cohort Study of “Talk and Die” After Traumatic Brain Injury

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Publication date: November 2017
Source:World Neurosurgery, Volume 107
Author(s): Keita Shibahashi, Kazuhiro Sugiyama, Yoshihiro Okura, Hidenori Hoda, Yuichi Hamabe
BackgroundPatients who “talk and die” after traumatic brain injury (TBI) are potentially salvageable. The reported incidences and risk factors for the “talk and die” phenomenon are conflicting and do not take into account recent improvements in trauma care. The aim of this study was to determine the incidences of “talk and die” after TBI in a modern trauma care system, as well as associated risk factors.MethodsWe identified patients who experienced TBI (abbreviated injury scale 3–5) between 2004 and 2015 who talked on admission (i.e., their verbal component on the Glasgow Coma Scale was ≥3 on admission) using a nationwide trauma registry (the Japan Trauma Data Bank). The end point was in-hospital mortality. We compared patients who talked and died with those who talked and survived.ResultsDuring the study period, 236,698 patients were registered in the database. Of the 24,833 patients who were eligible for analysis, 956 (4.0%) patients subsequently died in the hospital. The in-hospital mortality rate significantly decreased over the past 12 years. Older age; male sex; a higher injury severity score; a lower Glasgow Coma Scale score; comorbidities (congestive heart failure, chronic kidney disease, liver cirrhosis, and hematologic disorders); hypotension on arrival; subdural hemorrhage; contusion; and vault fracture were independently associated with higher in-hospital mortality.ConclusionEven in modern trauma care systems, some patients still talk and die after TBI. We identified certain risk factors in patients with TBI that elicit the requirement for close observation, even if these patients talk after TBI.

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If Cellular Blue Melanocytic Lesions Do Not Form a Spectrum…

No abstract available

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Inespecific Macules in Legs: Challenge

imageNo abstract available

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Anogenital Mammary-Like Glands: A Study of Their Normal Histology With Emphasis on Glandular Depth, Presence of Columnar Epithelial Cells, and Distribution of Elastic Fibers

imageAbstract: The normal histology of anogenital mammary-like glands (AGMLG) has been studied previously, but some aspects, including glandular depth, presence of columnar epithelium resembling columnar cell change/hyperplasia as defined in mammary pathology, and distribution of elastic fibers, have not been previously investigated. To address these issues, we studied 148 AGMLG identified in 133 paraffin blocks sampled from 64 vulvar wide excision or vulvectomy specimens (64 patients, various indications for surgery). The depth of AGMLG ranged from 0.64 to 3.9 mm. Epithelial columnar cell change was noted in 33.1% of all AGMLG, whereas columnar cell hyperplasia was detected in 10.1%. Occasionally, combinations of cuboidal epithelium and columnar cell change were seen within 1 histological section. Of 22 specimens stained for elastic fibers, in only 6 (27.3%) cases were elastic fibers found around glands. Periductal elastic fibers were demonstrated around 3 of the only 5 ducts, which were available for analysis in slides stained for elastic fibers. The depth of AGMLG should be taken into account when planning topical and surgical therapies for lesions derived or evolving from AGMLG. Alterations identical to columnar cell change may represent a normal variation of AGMLG.

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Palisaded Neutrophilic and Granulomatous Dermatitis/Interstitial Granulomatous Dermatitis Overlap: A Striking Clinical and Histologic Presentation With “Burning Rope Sign” and Subsequent Mirror-Image Contralateral Recurrence

imageAbstract: Palisaded neutrophilic and granulomatous dermatitis and interstitial granulomatous dermatitis are uncommon granulomatous dermatoses that often arise in association with rheumatoid arthritis. These 2 entities have overlapping features and may exist on a spectrum. We report an intriguing case of a 53-year-old man with advanced rheumatoid arthritis who presented with a large indurated painful truncal plaque with a palpable cord in addition to a papulonodular eruption on his dorsal hands. Furthermore, our patient had a recurrence in a near-identical mirror-image pattern on the contralateral trunk. The constellation of clinical and histopathological findings in our patient further suggests that palisaded neutrophilic and granulomatous dermatitis and interstitial granulomatous dermatitis exist as overlapping disease entities on a continuum. In addition, we propose that recurrence of skin findings may be indicative of the severity of the underlying systemic disease process.

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Eccrine Duct Dilation as a Marker of Cicatricial Alopecia

imageBackground: Eccrine duct dilation (EDD) and syringoma-like sweat duct proliferation have been described as reactive changes occurring in a variety of skin conditions. However, extensive evaluation of EDD in scalp biopsies performed for alopecia has not been performed.

Methods: We retrospectively examined 129 cases of cicatricial alopecia (lichen planopilaris, central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia, and discoid lupus erythematosus) and 130 cases of noncicatricial alopecias (androgenetic alopecia, telogen effluvium, and alopecia areata) for the presence of EDD.

Results: Overall, EDD occurred in 4% (5/130) of noncicatricial alopecia (2/43 of androgenetic alopecia, 0/15 of telogen effluvium, 3/72 of alopecia areata) and 35% (45/129) of cicatricial alopecia (10/31 of lichen planopilaris, 17/36 central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia, and 18/62 of discoid lupus erythematosus; P

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Prognostic Implication of Lymphovascular Invasion Detected by Double Immunostaining for D-40 and MITF1 in Primary Cutaneous Melanoma: Beware of MITF1 Specificity and Sensitivity in Unusual Melanoma Subtypes

No abstract available

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Loss of E-cadherin as Part of a Migratory Phenotype in Melanoma Is Associated With Ulceration

imageAbstract: It has been suggested that embryogenic properties of migratory cells are reactivated during wound healing and metastasis in adults. This might explain the association between wound-induced inflammation and poor survival in patients with ulcerated melanoma. Linking inflammation with a migratory phenotype, we characterize the infiltration of innate inflammatory cells, loss of cell-to-cell adhesion (E-cadherin), factors associated with extracellular matrix degradation [matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), and neutrophil elastase (NE)], and spindle-shaped cell morphology, between ulcerated (n = 179) and nonulcerated (n = 206) melanoma. In addition, the presence of “extravascular migratory metastasis” (angiotropism) and tumor-vessel density were evaluated as important factors for tumor cell dispersal in ulcerated melanoma. We showed a correlation between expression of the granulocyte marker cd66b+ and the expression of NE and MMP-9, reflecting activated neutrophils. Ulcerated melanoma correlated with a low global E-cadherin score (P = 0.041) and weak-spot score (P = 0.0004). Thus, 28% of the nonulcerated, 42% of the minimally/moderately ulcerated melanoma, and 53% of the excessively ulcerated melanoma presented low scores as opposed to a high E-cadherin score. In addition, the presence of ulceration was correlated with angiotropism (P

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